R. F. Service, Sunlight in Your Tank, Science, vol.326, issue.5959, pp.1472-1475000272623600010, 2009.
DOI : 10.1126/science.326.5959.1472

C. Heidi, M. J. Butterman, and . Castaldi, CO2 as a Carbon Neutral Fuel Source via Enhanced Biomass Gasification, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.43, issue.23, pp.9030-9037, 2009.

A. Belghit, Etude théorique et expérimentale d'un gazéifieur solaire de matière carbonées en lit poreux mobile, 1986.

M. Morris and L. Waldheim, Energy recovery from solid waste fuels using advanced gasification technology, Waste Management, vol.18, issue.6-8, pp.557-564, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0956-053X(98)00146-9

G. Edgar, X. Hertwich, and . Zhang, Concentrating-Solar Biomass Gasification Process for a 3rd Generation Biofuel, Environmental Science & Technology, vol.43, issue.11, pp.4207-4212000266546700039, 2009.

N. Piatkowski, C. Wieckert, A. W. Weimer, and A. Steinfeld, Solar-driven gasification of carbonaceous feedstock???a review, Energy Environ. Sci., vol.132, issue.1, pp.73-82000285748400006, 2011.
DOI : 10.1039/C0EE00312C

A. Nzihou, G. Flamant, and B. Stanmore, Synthetic fuels from biomass using concentrated solar energy ??? A review, Energy, vol.42, issue.1, pp.121-131, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.energy.2012.03.077

N. Piatkowski, C. Wieckert, and A. Steinfeld, Experimental investigation of a packed-bed solar reactor for the steam-gasification of carbonaceous feedstocks, Fuel Processing Technology, vol.90, issue.3, pp.360-366, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.fuproc.2008.10.007

E. D. Gordillo and A. Belghit, A downdraft high temperature steam-only solar gasifier of biomass char: A modelling study, Biomass and Bioenergy, vol.35, issue.5, pp.2034-2043, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.01.051

M. Flechsenhar and C. Sasse, Solar gasification of biomass using oil shale and coal as candidate materials, Energy, vol.20, issue.8, pp.803-810, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0360-5442(95)00023-A

E. D. Gordillo and A. Belghit, A bubbling fluidized bed solar reactor model of biomass char high temperature steam-only gasification, Fuel Processing Technology, vol.92, issue.3, pp.314-321, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.09.021

X. T. Li, J. R. Grace, C. J. Lim, A. P. Watkinson, H. P. Chen et al., Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized bed, Biomass and Bioenergy, vol.26, issue.2, pp.171-193, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0961-9534(03)00084-9

P. V. Zedtwitz and A. Steinfeld, The solar thermal gasification of coal ??? energy conversion efficiency and CO2 mitigation potential, Energy, vol.28, issue.5, pp.441-456, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0360-5442(02)00139-1

C. Di-blasi, C. Branca, A. Santoro, and R. Bermudez, Weight loss dynamics of wood chips under fast radiative heating, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol.57, issue.1, pp.77-90, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-2370(00)00119-4

A. Z. Graggen and A. Steinfeld, Hydrogen production by steam-gasification of carbonaceous materials using concentrated solar energy ??? V. Reactor modeling, optimization, and scale-up, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.33, issue.20, pp.5484-5492, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.07.047

R. Wai-chun, M. Chan, B. B. Kelbon, and . Krieger, Modelling and experimental verification of physical and chemical processes during pyrolysis of a large biomass particle, Fuel, vol.64, issue.11, pp.1505-1513, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-2361(85)90364-3

A. Galgano and C. D. Blasi, Modeling the propagation of drying and decomposition fronts in wood, Combustion and Flame, vol.139, issue.1-2, pp.16-27, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.combustflame.2004.07.004

J. Lédé, F. Blanchard, and O. Boutin, Radiant flash pyrolysis of cellulose pellets: products and mechanisms involved in transient and steady state conditions, Fuel, issue.10, pp.811269-1279, 2002.

O. Authier, M. Ferrer, G. Mauviel, A. Khalfi, and J. Lede, Wood Fast Pyrolysis: Comparison of Lagrangian and Eulerian Modeling Approaches with Experimental Measurements, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol.48, issue.10, pp.4796-4809000266081300016, 2009.
DOI : 10.1021/ie801854c

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00402751

M. Christodoulou, G. Mauviel, J. Lédé, P. Beaurain, and M. Weber, Novel vertical image furnace for fast pyrolysis studies, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol.103, pp.255-260, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jaap.2012.11.006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01377248

K. Zeng, D. Doan-pham-minh, E. Gauthier, A. Weiss-hortala, G. Nzihou et al., The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood, Bioresource Technology, vol.182, pp.114-119, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.112

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01176348

A. Imhof, Decomposition of limestone in a solar reactor, Renewable Energy, vol.10, issue.2-3, pp.239-246, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/0960-1481(96)00072-9

A. Imhof, . The, . Reactor-an, . Atmospheric, . Open et al., The cyclone reactor ??? an atmospheric open solar reactor, Solar Energy Materials, vol.24, issue.1-4, pp.733-741, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0165-1633(91)90106-U

A. Meier, . Bonaldi, W. Celia, and . Lipinski, Multitube Rotary Kiln for the Industrial Solar Production of Lime, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol.127, issue.3, pp.386-395000231452400012, 2005.
DOI : 10.1115/1.1979517

A. Meier, E. Bonaldi, G. M. Cella, W. Lipinski, and D. Wuillemin, Solar chemical reactor technology for industrial production of lime, Solar Energy, vol.80, issue.10, pp.1355-1362, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2005.05.017

D. L. Hamilton, Methods of Conserving Underwater Archaeological Material Culture. Texas A&M University, conservation of cultural resources i. nautical archaeology program edition, 1998.

E. Agoua and P. Perre, Mass Transfer in Wood: Identification of Structural Parameters from Diffusivity and Permeability Measurements, Journal of Porous Media, vol.13, issue.11, pp.1017-1024000285561200008, 2010.

M. Gunnar and G. , A theoretical and experimental study of the thermal degradation of biomass. dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology , 1996. A theoretical and experimental study of the thermal degradation of biomass

D. Harvey, Erickson and Western Dry Kiln Clubs. Mechanisms of moisture movement in woods. College of Forestry, 1954.

M. Borrega and P. P. Karenlampi, Three mechanisms affecting the mechanical properties of spruce wood dried at high temperatures, Journal of Wood Science, vol.37, issue.2, pp.87-94000276910300001, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s10086-009-1076-7

F. Thuvander, L. Wallström, L. A. Berglund, and K. A. Lindberg, Effects of an impregnation procedure for prevention of wood cell wall damage due to drying, Wood Science and Technology, vol.34, issue.6, pp.473-480, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s002260000065

M. Campean, I. Marinescu, and M. Ispas, Influence of drying temperature upon some mechanical properties of beech wood. Holz Als Roh- Und Werkstoff, pp.443-448000250631100005, 2007.

C. Branca, P. Giudicianni, and C. D. Blasi, GC/MS Characterization of Liquids Generated from Low-Temperature Pyrolysis of Wood, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol.42, issue.14, pp.3190-3202000183991400003, 2003.
DOI : 10.1021/ie030066d

J. M. Commandré, H. Lahmidi, S. Salvador, and N. Dupassieux, Pyrolysis of wood at high temperature: The influence of experimental parameters on gaseous products, Fuel Processing Technology, vol.92, issue.5, pp.837-844, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.07.009

N. Piatkowski and A. Steinfeld, Solar gasification of carbonaceous waste feedstocks in a packed-bed reactor-Dynamic modeling and experimental validation, AIChE Journal, vol.48, issue.12, pp.3522-3533, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/aic.12545

M. Guerrero, M. P. Ruiz, M. U. Alzueta, R. Bilbao, and A. Millera, Pyrolysis of eucalyptus at different heating rates: studies of char characterization and oxidative reactivity, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol.74, issue.1-2, pp.307-314, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jaap.2004.12.008

C. Koufopanos, A. Maschio, and . Lucchesi, Kinetic modelling of the pyrolysis of biomass and biomass components, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol.61, issue.1, pp.75-84, 1989.
DOI : 10.1002/cjce.5450670111

D. Colomba and . Blasi, Combustion and gasification rates of lignocellulosic chars, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, pp.121-140, 2009.

F. Mermoud, Gazéification de charbon de bois à la vapeur d'eau: de la particule isolée au lit fixe continu, 2006.

G. Morten, M. C. Grønli, and . Melaaen, Mathematical Model for Wood PyrolysisComparison of Experimental Measurements with Model Predictions, Energy Fuels, vol.14, issue.4, pp.791-800, 2000.

F. Mermoud, S. Salvador, L. Van-de-steene, and F. Golfier, Influence of the pyrolysis heating rate on the steam gasification rate of large wood char particles, Fuel, vol.85, issue.10-11, pp.10-111473, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.fuel.2005.12.004

R. Zanzi, K. Sjöström, and E. Björnbom, Rapid high-temperature pyrolysis of biomass in a free-fall reactor, Fuel, vol.75, issue.5, pp.545-550, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-2361(95)00304-5

C. Couhert, J. Commandre, and S. Salvador, Is it possible to predict gas yields of any biomass after rapid pyrolysis at high temperature from its composition in cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin? Fuel, pp.408-417, 2009.

C. Heidi, M. J. Butterman, and . Castaldi, CO2 enhanced steam gasification of biomass fuels, 16th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference, pp.157-172, 2008.

C. Di-blasi, C. Branca, A. Santoro, and E. Hernandez, Pyrolytic behavior and products of some wood varieties, Combustion and Flame, vol.124, issue.1-2, pp.165-177, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0010-2180(00)00191-7

G. Varhegyi, M. Antal, T. Szekely, and P. Szabo, Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and sugarcane bagasse, Energy & Fuels, vol.3, issue.3, pp.329-335, 1989.
DOI : 10.1021/ef00015a012

E. M. Suuberg, I. Milosavljevic, and V. Oja, Two-regime global kinetics of cellulose pyrolysis: The role of tar evaporation, Symposium (International) on Combustion, vol.26, issue.1, pp.1515-1521, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0082-0784(96)80373-0

J. Lédé, Comparison of contact and radiant ablative pyrolysis of biomass, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol.70, issue.2, pp.601-618, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-2370(03)00043-3

A. Dufour, B. Ouartassi, R. Bounaceur, and A. Zoulalian, Modelling intra-particle phenomena of biomass pyrolysis, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol.89, issue.10, pp.2136-2146, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cherd.2011.01.005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00778155

T. Cornelissen, J. Yperman, G. Reggers, S. Schreurs, and R. Carleer, Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with polylactic acid. Part 1: Influence on bio-oil yield and heating value, Fuel, vol.87, issue.7, pp.1031-1041, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.fuel.2007.07.019

A. Demirbas, Pyrolysis of ground beech wood in irregular heating rate conditions, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol.73, issue.1, pp.39-43, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jaap.2004.04.002

D. Colomba and . Blasi, Dynamic behaviour of stratified downdraft gasifiers, Chemical Engineering Science, vol.55, issue.15, pp.2931-2944, 2000.

Y. Xu, W. Li, X. Hu, and Y. Shi, Preparation and Characterization of Bio-oil from Biomass, 2011.
DOI : 10.5772/16466

O. Beaumont and Y. Schwob, Influence of physical and chemical parameters on wood pyrolysis, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, vol.23, issue.4, pp.637-641, 1984.
DOI : 10.1021/i200027a002

A. Demirbas, Oily products from mosses and algae via pyrolysis. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects, pp.933-940000239323200004, 2006.

P. Williams, S. Besler, and D. Taylor, The pyrolysis of scrap automotive tyres, Fuel, vol.69, issue.12, pp.1474-1482, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0016-2361(90)90193-T

C. Guizani, F. J. Sanz, and S. Salvador, Influence of temperature and particle size on the single and mixed atmosphere gasification of biomass char with H2O and CO2, Fuel Processing Technology, vol.134, pp.175-188, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.01.031

D. Zeng, M. Clark, T. Gunderson, W. C. Hecker, and T. H. Fletcher, Swelling properties and intrinsic reactivities of coal chars produced at elevated pressures and high heating rates, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, pp.2213-2221, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.proci.2004.07.038

T. Melchior, C. Perkins, P. Lichty, A. W. Weimer, and A. Steinfeld, Solar-driven biochar gasification in a particle-flow reactor, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, vol.48, issue.8, pp.481279-1287, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cep.2009.05.006

C. Dupont, T. Nocquet, J. Augusto-da-costa-jr, and C. Verne-tournon, Kinetic modelling of steam gasification of various woody biomass chars: Influence of inorganic elements, Bioresource Technology, vol.102, issue.20, pp.9743-9748, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.07.016

F. Marquez-montesinos, T. Cordero, J. , and J. J. , CO2 and steam gasification of a grapefruit skin char, Fuel, vol.81, issue.4, pp.423-429, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-2361(01)00174-0

I. I. Ahmed and A. K. Gupta, Kinetics of woodchips char gasification with steam and carbon dioxide, Applied Energy, vol.88, issue.5, pp.1613-1619, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.11.007

V. Minkova, S. Marinov, . Zanzi, . Björnbom, . Budinova et al., Thermochemical treatment of biomass in a flow of steam or in a mixture of steam and carbon dioxide, Fuel Processing Technology, vol.62, issue.1, pp.45-52, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-3820(99)00065-X

Y. J. Lu, H. Jin, L. J. Guo, X. M. Zhang, C. Q. Cao et al., Hydrogen production by biomass gasification in supercritical water with a fluidized bed reactor, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.33, issue.21, pp.6066-6075, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.07.082

T. A. Milne, N. Abatzoglou, and R. J. Evans, Biomass gasifier" tars": Their nature, formation, and conversion, 1998.
DOI : 10.2172/3726

T. Wongchang, S. Patumsawad, and B. Fungtammasan, An Analysis of Wood Pyrolysis Tar from High Temperature Thermal Cracking Process. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, pp.926-935, 2013.

H. Watanabe, Y. Morinaga, and K. Okazaki, Steam-Reforming Characteristics of Heavy and Light Tars Derived from Cellulose, Journal of Thermal Science and Technology, vol.7, issue.1, pp.180-189000305075400013, 2012.
DOI : 10.1299/jtst.7.180

B. Zhao, X. Zhang, L. Chen, R. Qu, G. Meng et al., Steam reforming of toluene as model compound of biomass pyrolysis tar for hydrogen, Biomass and Bioenergy, vol.34, issue.1, pp.140-144, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.10.011

M. Puig-arnavat, E. A. Tora, J. C. Bruno, and A. Coronas, State of the art on reactor designs for solar gasification of carbonaceous feedstock, Solar Energy, vol.97, pp.67-84, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2013.08.001

G. Baud, J. J. Bezian, M. Hafi, and G. Olalde, A theoretical and experimental study of the time-dependent radiative properties of a solar bubbling fluidized bed receiver, Solar Energy, vol.105, pp.341-353, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2014.02.028

X. Q. Wang, S. R. Kersten, W. Prins, and W. P. Van-swaaij, Biomass Pyrolysis in a Fluidized Bed Reactor. Part 2:?? Experimental Validation of Model Results, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol.44, issue.23, pp.8786-8795000233214000040, 2005.
DOI : 10.1021/ie050486y

N. Piatkowski and A. Steinfeld, Solar-Driven Coal Gasification in a Thermally Irradiated Packed-Bed Reactor, Energy & Fuels, vol.22, issue.3, pp.2043-2052000256057600086, 2008.
DOI : 10.1021/ef800027c

A. Gómez-barea, P. Ollero, and R. Arjona, Reaction-diffusion model of TGA gasification experiments for estimating diffusional effects, Fuel, vol.84, pp.12-131695, 2005.

T. Wall and H. Becker, Total Absorptivities and Emissivities of Particulate Coal Ash from Spectral Band Emissivity Measurements Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power-Transactions of the Asme, pp.771-776, 1984.

J. Chen, Y. Lu, L. Guo, X. Zhang, and P. Xiao, Hydrogen production by biomass gasification in supercritical water using concentrated solar energy: System development and proof of concept, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.35, issue.13, pp.7134-7141, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2010.02.023

A. Z. 'graggen, P. Haueter, G. Maag, A. Vidal, M. Romero et al., Hydrogen production by steam-gasification of petroleum coke using concentrated solar power?III. Reactor experimentation with slurry feeding, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, issue.8, pp.32992-996, 2007.

R. Syed-shabbar and I. Janajreh, Solar Assisted Gasification of Solid Feedstock: Optical Arrangement and Numerical Simulation, International Journal of Thermal & Environmental Engineering, vol.7, issue.2, pp.65-72, 2014.

C. Guesdon, I. Alxneit, H. R. Tschudi, D. Wuillemin, and M. Sturzenegger, 1 kW imaging furnace with in situ measurement of surface temperature, Review of Scientific Instruments, vol.77, issue.3, p.035102000236739100040, 2006.

J. Blondeau and H. Jeanmart, Biomass pyrolysis at high temperatures: Prediction of gaseous species yields from an anisotropic particle, Biomass and Bioenergy, vol.41, pp.107-121, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.02.016

P. Perré and I. W. Turner, A 3-D version of TransPore: a comprehensive heat and mass transfer computational model for simulating the drying of porous media, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.42, issue.24, pp.424501-4521, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0017-9310(99)00098-8

L. Gary, K. W. Borman, and . Ragland, Combustion engineering, 1998.

B. Richard, A. F. Bates, and . Ghoniem, Modeling kinetics-transport interactions during biomass torrefaction: The effects of temperature, particle size, and moisture content, Fuel, vol.137, pp.216-229000341303300027, 2014.

S. Salvador, M. Quintard, and C. David, Combustion of a substitution fuel made of cardboard and polyethylene: influence of the mix characteristics-modeling, Fire and Materials, vol.43, issue.2, pp.417-444000261118100003, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/fam.978

D. K. Shen, M. X. Fang, Z. Y. Luo, and K. Cen, Modeling pyrolysis of wet wood under external heat flux, Fire Safety Journal, vol.42, issue.3, pp.210-217, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.firesaf.2006.09.001

M. Kenneth, K. W. Bryden, C. J. Ragland, and . Rutland, Modeling thermally thick pyrolysis of wood, Biomass and Bioenergy, vol.22, issue.1, pp.41-53, 2002.

R. Mehrabian, S. Zahirovic, R. Scharler, I. Obernberger, S. Kleditzsch et al., A CFD model for thermal conversion of thermally thick biomass particles, Fuel Processing Technology, vol.95, pp.96-108, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.11.021

S. Danaei, K. , and Y. Zheng, Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass Pellets Using Concentrated Solar Radiation: A Numerical Study, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering-Transactions of the Asme, vol.136, issue.4, p.041004000344346600004, 2014.

A. Bejan, Convection Heat Transfer, 1984.
DOI : 10.1002/9781118671627

G. Chauveteau and C. Thirriot, Sur les pertes de charge en écoulement laminaire dans quelques géométries simple et dans le milieu poreux, 1965.

N. Puiroux, M. Prat, and M. Quintard, Non-equilibrium theories for macroscale heat transfer: ablative composite layer systems, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol.43, issue.6, pp.541-554, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2003.11.004

C. Dupont, Vapogazéification de la biomasse : contribution a létude de la phénomènologie entre 800 et 1000 °C, 2006.

B. Moghtaderi, The state-of-the-art in pyrolysis modelling of lignocellulosic solid fuels, Fire and Materials, vol.23, issue.1, pp.1-34000235521800001, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/fam.891

R. Chan and B. B. Krieger, Modeling of Physical and Chemical Processes During Pyrolysis of a Large Biomass Pellet with Experimental Verification, Prepr. Pap., Am. Chem. Soc., Div. Fuel Chem.; (United States), vol.28, issue.5, 1983.

O. Pious, T. Okekunle, H. Pattanotai, K. Watanabe, and . Okazaki, Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Intra-Particle Heat Transfer and Tar Decomposition during Pyrolysis of Wood Biomass, Journal of Thermal Science and Technology, vol.6, issue.3, pp.360-375000295920800004, 2011.

A. Won-chan-park, H. R. Atreya, and . Baum, Experimental and theoretical investigation of heat and mass transfer processes during wood pyrolysis, Combustion and Flame, vol.157, issue.3, pp.481-494, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.10.006

D. Mohan, C. U. Pittman, and P. H. Steele, Pyrolysis of Wood/Biomass for Bio-oil:??? A Critical Review, Energy & Fuels, vol.20, issue.3, pp.848-889, 2006.
DOI : 10.1021/ef0502397

J. M. Jones, M. Pourkashanian, A. Williams, and D. Hainsworth, A comprehensive biomass combustion model, Renewable Energy, vol.19, issue.1-2, pp.229-234, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-1481(99)00036-1

. Th, G. Damartzis, A. Ioannidis, and . Zabaniotou, Simulating the behavior of a wire mesh reactor for olive kernel fast pyrolysis, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol.136, pp.2-3320, 2008.

V. Pozzobon, S. Salvador, J. J. Bézian, M. El-hafi, Y. L. Maoult et al., Radiative pyrolysis of wet wood under intermediate heat flux: Experiments and modelling, Fuel Processing Technology, vol.128, pp.319-330, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.fuproc.2014.07.007

D. Colomba and . Blasi, Heat, momentum and mass transport through a shrinking biomass particle exposed to thermal radiation, Chemical Engineering Science, vol.51, issue.7, pp.1121-1132, 1996.

J. Larfeldt, B. Leckner, and M. C. Melaaen, Modelling and measurements of heat transfer in charcoal from pyrolysis of large wood particles, Biomass and Bioenergy, vol.18, issue.6, pp.507-514000087546500007, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0961-9534(00)00008-8

T. Kojima, P. Assavadakorn, and T. Furusawa, Measurement and evaluation of gasification kinetics of sawdust char with steam in an experimental fluidized bed, Fuel Processing Technology, vol.36, issue.1-3, pp.1-3201, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0378-3820(93)90028-3

P. Hyung-chul-yoon, A. Pozivil, and . Steinfeld, Thermogravimetric Pyrolysis and Gasification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Kinetic Summative Law for Parallel Reactions with Cellulose, Xylan, and Lignin, Energy & Fuels, vol.26, issue.1, pp.357-364, 2011.
DOI : 10.1021/ef201281n

C. Dupont, L. Chen, J. Cances, J. Commandre, A. Cuoci et al., Biomass pyrolysis: Kinetic modelling and experimental validation under high temperature and flash heating rate conditions, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol.85, issue.1-2, pp.260-267, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jaap.2008.11.034

K. Kwiatkowski, K. Bajer, A. Celi?ska, M. Dudy?ski, J. Korotko et al., Pyrolysis and gasification of a thermally thick wood particle ??? Effect of fragmentation, Fuel, vol.132, pp.125-134, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.fuel.2014.04.057

J. Lachaud and N. Mansour, Porous-material Analysis Toolbox based on OpenFOAM-extend and Applications, 44th AIAA Thermophysics Conference, 2013.
DOI : 10.2514/6.2013-2767

V. Pozzobon and S. Salvador, High heat flux mapping using infrared images processed by inverse methods: An application to solar concentrating systems, Solar Energy, vol.117, pp.29-35, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2015.04.021

A. Demirbas, Combustion characteristics of different biomass fuels. Progress in energy and combustion science, pp.219-230, 2004.

K. W. Ragland, D. J. Aerts, and A. J. Baker, Properties of wood for combustion analysis, Bioresource Technology, vol.37, issue.2, pp.161-168, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0960-8524(91)90205-X

M. Ploetze and P. Niemz, Bestimmung der Porosit??t und Porengr????enverteilung verschiedener H??lzer mittels Quecksilberdruckporosimetrie, European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, vol.7, issue.6, pp.649-657000295787600018, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00107-010-0504-0

C. Guesdon, I. Alxneit, H. R. Tschudi, D. Wuillemin, J. Petrasch et al., PSI's 1 kW imaging furnace?A tool for high-temperature chemical reactivity studies, Solar Energy, issue.10, pp.801344-1348, 2006.

J. Petrasch, P. Coray, A. Meier, M. Brack, P. Haeberling et al., A Novel 50???kW 11,000 suns High-Flux Solar Simulator Based on an Array of Xenon Arc Lamps, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol.129, issue.4, pp.405-411000250637900008, 2007.
DOI : 10.1115/1.2769701

J. Sarwar, G. Georgakis, R. Lachance, and N. Ozalp, Description and characterization of an adjustable flux solar simulator for solar thermal, thermochemical and photovoltaic applications, Solar Energy, vol.100, pp.179-194000331007700018, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2013.12.008

L. Chen, Fast pyrolysis of millimetric wood particles between 800°C and 1000°C, 2009.

C. Gueymard, SMARTS2: a simple model of the atmospheric radiative transfer of sunshine: algorithms and performance assessment, Florida Solar Energy, 1995.

J. Llorente, J. Ballestrin, and A. J. Vazquez, A new solar concentrating system: Description, characterization and applications, Solar Energy, vol.85, issue.5, pp.1000-1006000290644000029, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2011.02.018

S. Daniel, A. Codd, J. Carlson, A. H. Rees, and . Slocum, A low cost high flux solar simulator, Solar Energy, vol.84, issue.12, pp.2202-2212, 2010.

DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-08-034315-0.50313-X

M. Mohammadiun, A. B. Rahimi, and I. Khazaee, Estimation of the time-dependent heat flux using the temperature distribution at a point by conjugate gradient method, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, vol.50, issue.12, pp.2443-2450, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2011.07.003

Z. Fang, D. Xie, N. Diao, J. R. Grace, and C. J. Lim, A new method for solving the inverse conduction problem in steady heat flux measurement, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol.40, issue.16, pp.403947-3953, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0017-9310(97)00046-X

D. Hernandez, G. Olalde, J. M. Gineste, and C. Gueymard, Analysis and Experimental Results of Solar-Blind Temperature Measurements in Solar Furnaces, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol.126, issue.1, pp.645-653000189287100013, 2004.
DOI : 10.1115/1.1636191

J. Ballestrín, M. Rodríguez-alonso, J. Rodríguez, I. Cañadas, F. J. Barbero et al., Calibration of high-heat-flux sensors in a solar furnace, Metrologia, vol.43, issue.6, p.43495, 2006.
DOI : 10.1088/0026-1394/43/6/003

R. S. Graves, T. G. Kollie, D. L. Mcelroy, and K. E. Gilchrist, The thermal conductivity of AISI 304L stainless steel, International Journal of Thermophysics, vol.31, issue.2, pp.409-415, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00500761

C. Fan, F. Sun, and L. Yang, Simple Numerical Method for Multidimensional Inverse Identification of Heat Flux Distribution, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, vol.23, issue.3, pp.622-629000268300300023, 2009.
DOI : 10.2514/1.38446

Y. Shi, L. Zeng, W. Qian, and Y. Gui, A data processing method in the experiment of heat flux testing using inverse methods, Aerospace Science and Technology, vol.29, issue.1, pp.74-80, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ast.2013.01.009

H. M. Park and W. S. Jung, On the Solution of Multidimensional Inverse Heat Conduction Problems Using an Efficient Sequential Method, Journal of Heat Transfer, vol.123, issue.6, pp.1021-1029000172645400001, 2001.
DOI : 10.1115/1.1409260

A. Demirbas, Determination of calorific values of bio-chars and pyro-oils from pyrolysis of beech trunkbarks, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol.72, issue.2, pp.215-219, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jaap.2004.06.005

P. M. Mortensen, J. D. Grunwaldt, P. A. Jensen, K. G. Knudsen, and A. D. Jensen, A review of catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to engine fuels, Applied Catalysis A: General, vol.407, issue.1-2, pp.1-19, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apcata.2011.08.046

L. P. Rabou, R. J. Van-leijenhorst, and J. H. Hazewinkel, High efficiency power production from biomass and waste, ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, 2008.

L. Waldheim and T. Nilsson, Heating value of gases from biomass gasification Report prepared for: IEA bioenergy agreement, p.20, 2001.

G. Gauthier, Synthèse de biocarburants de deuxième génération : Etude de la pyrolyse à haute température de particules de bois centimétriques, 2013.

M. Quintard, M. Kaviany, and S. Whitaker, Two-medium treatment of heat transfer in porous media: numerical results for effective properties, Advances in Water Resources, vol.20, issue.2-3, pp.2-377, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0309-1708(96)00024-3

F. Golfier and M. Quintard, Heat and Mass Transfer in Tubes: An Analysis Using the Method of Volume Averaging, Journal of Porous Media, vol.5, issue.3, pp.169-185, 2002.
DOI : 10.1615/JPorMedia.v5.i3.10

E. Kansa, H. Perlee, and R. Chaiken, Mathematical model of wood pyrolysis including internal forced convection, Combustion and Flame, vol.29, issue.3, pp.311-324, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0010-2180(77)90121-3

J. Saastamoinen and J. Richard, Simultaneous drying and pyrolysis of solid fuel particles, Combustion and Flame, vol.106, issue.3, pp.288-300, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0010-2180(96)00001-6

C. Buraczewski and J. Stasiek, Application of generalized Pythagoras theorem to calculation of configuration factors between surfaces of channels of revolution, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, vol.4, issue.3, pp.157-160, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0142-727X(83)90061-9

T. L. Bergman, F. P. Incropera, and A. S. Lavine, Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer, 2011.

Y. Chen and T. C. Bond, Light absorption by organic carbon from wood combustion, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol.10, issue.4, pp.1773-1787, 2010.
DOI : 10.5194/acp-10-1773-2010

P. Hass, K. Falk, S. A. Wittel, F. Mcdonald, and . Marone, Pore space analysis of beech wood: The vessel network, Holzforschung, vol.64, issue.5, pp.639-644, 2010.
DOI : 10.1515/hf.2010.103

T. Harada, T. Hata, and S. Ishihara, Thermal constants of wood during the heating process measured with the laser flash method, Journal of Wood Science, vol.40, issue.6, pp.425-431, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00833405

S. Youcef-ali and J. Y. Desmons, Numerical and experimental study of a solar equipped with offset rectangular plate fin absorber plate, Renewable Energy, vol.31, issue.13, pp.312063-2075, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.renene.2005.10.008

M. Forsth and A. Roos, Absorptivity and its dependence on heat source temperature and degree of thermal breakdown, Fire and Materials, vol.15, issue.5, pp.285-301000294175800003, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/fam.1053

W. Y. Walter, T. Ezra, and C. George, Combined conductive/radiative heat transfer in high porosity fibrous insulation materials: theory and experiment, The 6th ASME-JSME thermal engineering joint conference, 2003.

C. John, S. W. Chen, and . Churchill, Radiant heat transfer in packed beds, AIChE Journal, vol.9, issue.1, pp.35-41, 1963.

I. Isaac, E. Kantorovich, and . Bar-ziv, Heat transfer within highly porous chars: a review, Fuel, vol.78, issue.3, pp.279-299, 1999.

S. Duber, J. Rouzaud, C. Clinard, and S. Pusz, Microporosity and optical properties of some activated chars, Fuel Processing Technology, vol.77, issue.78, pp.77-78221, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-3820(02)00050-4

P. Boulet, G. Parent, Z. Acem, T. Rogaume, T. Fateh et al., Characterization of the radiative exchanges when using a cone calorimeter for the study of the plywood pyrolysis, Fire Safety Journal, vol.51, pp.53-60, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.firesaf.2012.03.003

E. Grushka and V. Maynard, Measurements of gaseous diffusion coefficients by gas chromatography, Journal of Chemical Education, vol.49, issue.8, p.565, 1972.
DOI : 10.1021/ed049p565

T. R. Marrero and E. A. Mason, Gaseous Diffusion Coefficients, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol.1, issue.1, p.3, 1972.
DOI : 10.1063/1.3253094

G. Henry, G. Weller, H. Tabor, C. Jasak, and . Fureby, A tensorial approach to computational continuum mechanics using object-oriented techniques, Computers in physics, vol.12, issue.6, pp.620-631, 1998.

M. Nordlund, Modified Rhie-Chow/PISO algorithm for collocated variable finite porous media flow solvers, 5th International Conference on Porous Media and Their Applications in Science, Engineering and Industry, 2014.

I. Burgert and D. Eckstein, The tensile strength of isolated wood rays of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and its significance for the biomechanics of living trees. Trees-Structure and Function, pp.168-170000168336800006, 2001.

A. L. Robinson, S. G. Buckley, N. Yang, and L. L. Baxter, Experimental Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity of Ash Deposits:??? Part 2. Effects of Sintering and Deposit Microstructure, Energy & Fuels, vol.15, issue.1, pp.75-84, 2000.
DOI : 10.1021/ef0000375

R. S. Miller and J. Bellan, Analysis of Reaction Products and Conversion Time in the Pyrolysis of Cellulose and Wood Particles, Combustion Science and Technology, vol.2, issue.1-6, pp.331-373, 1996.
DOI : 10.1021/i200014a015

M. Gupta, C. Yang, and . Roy, Specific heat and thermal conductivity of softwood bark and softwood char particles???, Fuel, vol.82, issue.8, pp.919-927000182003900006, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0016-2361(02)00398-8

G. Leon, J. Cruz-de-leon, and L. Villasenor, Thermal characterization of pine wood by photoacoustic and photothermal techniques, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, vol.58, issue.4, pp.241-246, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/s001070050418

O. Boutin, . Lede, A. Olalde, and . Ferriere, Solar flash pyrolysis of biomass direct measurement of the optical properties of biomass components, Le Journal de Physique IV, vol.09, issue.PR3, pp.367-372000080492400058, 1999.
DOI : 10.1051/jp4:1999357

W. Jinman, D. Chengyue, and L. Yixing, Wood permeability, Journal of Forestry Research, vol.2, issue.1, pp.91-97, 1991.

J. Chern and A. N. Hayhurst, A model for the devolatilization of a coal particle sufficiently large to be controlled by heat transfer, Combustion and Flame, vol.146, issue.3, pp.553-571000239871400012, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.combustflame.2006.04.011

M. W. Chase, United States, and National Bureau of Standards. NIST-JANAF Themochemical Tables, Physics for the National Bureau of Standards, 1998.

C. F. Bonilla, R. D. Brooks, P. L. Jr, and . Walker, The Viscosity of Steam and of Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure and High Temperature, Heat-Transfer Discussions, pp.79-85, 1951.

J. Millat and W. A. Wakeham, The Thermal Conductivity of Nitrogen and Carbon Monoxide in the Limit of Zero Density, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol.18, issue.2, pp.565-581, 1989.
DOI : 10.1063/1.555827

E. Vogel, Towards Reference Viscosities of Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen at Low Density Using Measurements between 290K and 680K as well as Theoretically Calculated Viscosities, International Journal of Thermophysics, vol.38, issue.3, pp.741-757, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s10765-012-1185-1

L. S. Zaitseva, L. V. Yakush, and N. A. Vanicheva, Thermal conductivities of benzene and toluene vapors, Journal of Engineering Physics, vol.31, issue.5, pp.311292-1295, 1976.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00859307

R. D. Goodwin, Benzene Thermophysical Properties from 279 to 900 K at Pressures to 1000 Bar, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol.17, issue.4, pp.1541-1636, 1988.
DOI : 10.1063/1.555813

K. Wonsoo, C. Tong-seek, and P. Hyunsuk, A Paradigm for the Viscosity of Fluids, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc, vol.9, issue.4, pp.213-217, 1998.

L. V. Maria, C. A. Ramires, Y. Nieto-de-castro, A. Nagasaka, M. J. Nagashima et al., Standard Reference Data for the Thermal Conductivity of Water, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, vol.24, issue.3, pp.1377-1381, 1995.