Nanocomposites et mousses à base de nanofibrilles de cellulose : rhéologie au cours de leur mise en forme et propriétés mécaniques

Abstract : This study focuses on the use of cellulose nanofibrils (NFCs) as bio-based nano-reinforcement in polymer composites and foams. These renewable materials can be used in place of traditional materials such as for instance to produce sandwich panels. This experi-mental, theoretical and numerical work aims at optimizing the processing of these NFC-based materials as well as their use properties.In the first part of this work, the rheology of concentrated NFC suspensions, that behave as thixotropic yield stress fluids, is investigated at macro- and mesoscales using an original rheo-ultrasonic velocimetry (rheo-USV) setup allowing the local flow kinematic to be obtai-ned. We show that the flow of NFC suspensions is highly heterogeneous and exhibits com-plex situations with the coexistence of wall slippage, multiple shear bands and plug-like flow bands. Using this experimental database, we develop an original multiscale rheological model for the prediction of the rheology of NFC suspensions. The model takes into account the anisotropic fibrous nature of NFC networks as well as colloidal and mechanical interaction forces occurring at the nanoscale. The model predictions prove that colloidal and hydrody-namic interaction forces together with the orientation and the wavy nature of NFCs play a major role on the yield stress and shear thinning behaviour of the suspensions.In the second part of this work, NFC-reinforced polymer nanocomposite films are processed for a wide range of NFC contents. Using advanced microscopy techniques (AFM, SEM), X-ray diffraction and mechanical tests (tensile and DMA tests), we show (i) that NFCs form highly connected nanofibrous structures with in-plane random orientation, (ii) that these connected NFC networks play a leading role on the mechanical behaviour of the nanocompo-sites and (iii) that the elastic properties of nanocomposite films are much lower than those predicted from the micromechanical models of the literature. In light of these observations, we propose an alternative multiscale model in which the main involved deformation nano-mechanisms are those occurring both in the amorphous segments of the nanofibers and in the numerous nanofiber-nanofiber contact zones.Finally, in a third part we focus on the influence of the processing conditions, the suspension type and the NFC concentration on the microstructure (using X-ray synchrotron microto-mography), the mechanical properties (using compression tests) and the deformation micro-mechanisms (using in situ compression test with X-ray microtomography) of various foams prepared from NFC suspensions by freeze-drying.
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Florian Martoïa. Nanocomposites et mousses à base de nanofibrilles de cellulose : rhéologie au cours de leur mise en forme et propriétés mécaniques. Génie des procédés. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAI062⟩. ⟨tel-01254834⟩

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