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Étude de la dégradation et de la fiabilité des modules photovoltaïques - Impact de la poussière sur les caractéristiques électriques de performance

Abstract : This thesis is a contribution to the mastery of the PV modules behaviour during their life cycle. On the one hand, it deals with the degradation and reliability of modules and on the other hand with the impact of dust deposits on the electrical characteristics performance. To better understand the thematic, we found it useful to conduct a detailed review of the literature on a subject still less invested. It was found that the corrosion (19%), discoloration (12%) and delamination (42%) are the main modes of PV modules degradation. Our study is mainly circumscribed in the Sahel region for which we have not identified works on this issue. Thus, to carry out our work, an experimental platform was established in order to have a database relating to environmental conditions of real functioning and electrical performance parameters of PV modules. The exploitation of this database was used to determine the dominant operating conditions of modules to assess their degradation after a few years of operation and estimate their reliability in such an environmental context. The modules for 50% of the year operate between 30°C and 65°C. For moisture, they are between 65% and 98% for 60% of the year. They are exposed to UV radiation between 10W.m-2 and 40W.m-2 for 40% of their annual exposure. The study of PV modules degradation has focused on the electrical performance characteristics namely short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, maximum power, maximum current and maximum voltage but also on the characteristics of current-voltage (IV) and power-voltage (PV). Two approaches to the evaluation of PV module degradation are proposed. The first, EMDS (Evaluation of module degradation by Standardization) is based on the standardization of measurements in real conditions. The second approach, EMDA (Evaluation of PV Modules degradation by Analyzer) uses the PV module analyzer IV-400. This study showed that the modules studied that have worked between one year and a half and five years have 3.65% average annual power degradation with a net change from one module to another and from one technology to another. The impact of dust deposits on the characteristics of PV module performance is highlighted via a dedicated experimental study. It showed a degradation of the maximum power of 70% observed on modules after a year of exposure without cleaning. Then, the correlation between PV modules performance variation and the density of dust deposits on modules surface has been studied. For that, a dust density measurement method on modules is proposed. Finally, a methodology and tool based on accelerated tests in order to estimate the reliability and the lifetime of modules are proposed. This tool, PVMRE (PV Modules Reliability Estimator) is developed under the Scilab environment. It showed that the reliability and lifetime of the modules are more sensitive to the module temperature than to the relative humidity. When module temperature increases by 10°C, the lifetime decreases by a factor 3 about. A variation of the relative humidity of 10% induces in a reduction of one average year of the modules lifetime.
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Submitted on : Monday, January 4, 2016 - 3:17:36 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 5, 2022 - 2:54:00 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01250271, version 1

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Ababacar Ndiaye. Étude de la dégradation et de la fiabilité des modules photovoltaïques - Impact de la poussière sur les caractéristiques électriques de performance. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Ecole Supérieure Polytechnique (ESP) - UCAD, 2013. Français. ⟨tel-01250271⟩

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