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Devenir des cellules souches mésenchymateuses humaines dans un environnement tridimensionnel : application à l’ingénierie du tissu osseux

Abstract : Bone tissue engineering aims to resolve the existing limitations of boneregeneration methods. One of the proposed strategies consists on the association,within a three-dimensional (3D) matrix, with autologous cells able to regenerate afunctional 3D tissue. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate theimpact of cellular communication, between cells of the stromal compartment andendothelial cells, within the three-dimensional porous matrix made of biodegradablenatural polysaccharides, focusing on bone repair. Our results show that thearchitecture and the nature of the 3D macroporous matrix promotes the guidance ofmesenchymal stems cells, derived from human bone marrow, towards theosteoblastic lineage. Also, that the organization in aggregates, promoted by the 3Dmatrices, stimulated cell communication, evidenced by the formation of GAPjunctions and activity of Connexins 43. We also focused on the function ofPannexines 1 and 3 for the 3D culture in these matrices of polysaccharides. Inconclusion, this work shows that cell-cell interactions play a major role in order toimprove bone tissue regeneration. Also, cellular and experimental data demonstratesthe advantage of using a total fraction of bone marrow cells to promote both boneformation and vascularization.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01247887
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 5, 2016 - 3:18:25 PM
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Julien Guerrero. Devenir des cellules souches mésenchymateuses humaines dans un environnement tridimensionnel : application à l’ingénierie du tissu osseux. Biologie cellulaire. Université de Bordeaux, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014BORD0200⟩. ⟨tel-01247887⟩

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