Equations diophantiennes et corps cyclotomiques

Abstract : This thesis examines some approaches to address Diophantine equations, specifically we focus on the connection between the Diophantine analysis and the theory of cyclotomic fields.First, we propose a quick introduction to the methods of Diophantine approximation we have used in this research work. We remind the notion of height and introduce the logarithmic gcd.Then, we address a conjecture, made by Thoralf Skolem in 1937, on an exponential Diophantine equation. For this conjecture, let K be a number field, α1 ,…, αm , λ1 ,…, λm non-zero elements in K, and S a finite set of places of K (containing all the infinite places) such that the ring of S-integersOS = OK,S = {α ∈ K : |α|v ≤ 1 pour les places v ∈/ S}contains α1 , . . . , αm , λ1 , . . . , λm α1-1 , . . . , αm-1. For each n ∈ Z, let A(n)=λ_1 α_1^n+⋯+λ_m α_m^n∈O_S. Skolem suggested [SK1] :Conjecture (exponential local-global principle). Assume that for every non zero ideal a of the ring O_S, there exists n ∈ Z such that A(n) ≡0 mod a. Then, there exists n ∈ Z such that A(n)=0.Let Γ be the multiplicative group generated by α1 ,…, αm. Then Γ is the product of a finite abelian group and a free abelian group of finite rank. We prove that the conjecture is true when the rank of Γ is one.After that, we generalize a result previously published by Abouzaid ([A]). Let F(X,Y) ∈ Q[X,Y] be an irreducible Q-polynomial. In 2008, Abouzaid [A] proved the following theorem:Theorem (Abouzaid). Assume that (0,0) is a non-singular point of the plane curve F(X,Y) = 0. Let m = degX F, n = degY F, M = max{m, n}. Let ε satisfy 0 < ε < 1. Then for any solution (α,β) ∈ Q ̅2 of F(X,Y) = 0, we have eithermax{h(α), h(β)} ≤ 56M8ε−2hp(F) + 420M10ε−2 log(4M),ormax{|h(α) − nlgcd(α, β)|,|h(β) − mlgcd(α, β)|} ≤ εmax{h(α), h(β)}++ 742M7ε−1hp(F) + 5762M9ε−1log(2m + 2n)However, he imposed the condition that (0, 0) be a non-singular point of the plane curve F(X,Y) = 0. Using a somewhat different version of Siegel’s “absolute” lemma and of Eisenstein’s lemma, we could remove the condition and prove it in full generality. We prove the following theorem:Theorem. Let F(X,Y) ∈ Q ̅[X,Y] be an absolutely irreducible polynomial satisfying F(0,0)=0. Let m=degX F, n=degY F and r = min{i+j:(∂^(i+j) F)/(∂^i X∂^j Y)(0,0)≠0}. Let ε be such that 0 < ε < 1. Then, for all (α, β) ∈ Q ̅2 such that F(α,β) = 0, we have eitherh(α) ≤ 200ε−2mn6(hp(F) + 5)or|(lgcd(α,β))/r-h(α)/n|≤1/r (εh(α)+4000ε^(-1) n^4 (h_p (F)+log⁡(mn)+1)+30n^2 m(h_p (F)+log⁡(mn) ))Then, we give an overview of the tools we have used in cyclotomic fields. We try there to develop a systematic approach to address a certain type of Diophantine equations. We discuss on cyclotomic extensions and give some basic but useful properties, on group-ring properties and on Jacobi sums.Finally, we show a very interesting application of the approach developed in the previous chapter. There, we consider the Diophantine equation(1) Xn − 1 = BZn,where B ∈ Z is understood as a parameter. Define ϕ∗(B) := ϕ(rad (B)), where rad (B) is the radical of B, and assume that (2) (n, ϕ∗(B)) = 1.For a fixed B ∈ N_(>1)we let N(B) = {n ∈ N_(>1) | ∃ k > 0 such that n|ϕ∗(B)}. If p is an odd prime, we shall denote by CF the combined condition requiring thatI The Vandiver Conjecture holds for p, so the class number h+ of the maximal real subfield of the cyclotomic field Q[ζp ] is not divisible by p.II We have ir>(p) < √p − 1, in other words, there is at most √p − 1 odd integers k < p such that the Bernoulli number Bk ≡ 0 mod p. [...]
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Boris Bartolomé. Equations diophantiennes et corps cyclotomiques. Number Theory [math.NT]. Université de Bordeaux, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015BORD0104⟩. ⟨tel-01247743⟩

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