Etude d'une résurgence active dans la caldera de Siwi (Tanna, Vanuatu) : le système Yenkahe-Yasur

Abstract : Resurgence, defined as the post-collapse uplift of the caldera floor, is widespread phenomenon worldwide but it is still poorly understood. This work is a multidisciplinary study of a resurgent dome: the Yenkahe dome, located inside the Siwi caldera, in Vanuatu. The relevance of this dome is multiple: firstly, resurgence is currently active, secondly it is fast, so the associated structures are well-preserved, and lastly, the Yenkahe dome presents the originality to be associated with a volcanic cone which has been permanently active for at least several hundred years: the Yasur volcano. A primary tectonic study based on field observations, satellite images and available low-resolution digital elevation models brought the evidence of a two-stage (at least) dome growth history. The first stage is a vertical growth that produced the longitudinal graben on top of the dome. It was followed, in the second stage, by an eastward displacement of the deformation source, generating an uplift of the eastern dome relative to the western dome. The Yenkahe structural map was then refined through the computation of a high-resolution photogrammetric digital surface model (DSM). Besides the great number of details allowing precise fault mapping, this DSM highlights the presence of numerous destabilization scars associated with the evolution of the dome. In the future, similar destabilization events may produce tsunamis reaching inhabited areas in a couple of minutes. The characteristics of the long-term deformation source of the Yenkahe dome, and of other resurgent domes with a similar morphology, were investigated by analogue modeling (intrusion of silicone putty in a sand-plaster mixture). The results of the study show the width of the graben created by an elongated intrusion source mostly depends on the depth of this source. The source of the Yenkahe dome, presumably a magmatic intrusion, would be approximately one-kilometer deep. A second study, based on a punching process in a numerically modeled elastoplastic medium, shows a different internal structure for the dome. However, it confirms the order of magnitude obtained for the source depth (1-2 km), making this result more robust. The presumed magmatic source may be connected to the Yasurvolcano, exhibiting an open conduit activity for several hundred years, which would imply an incremental growth governed by transient over-pressurizing events at depth (such as magma injections). Lastly, a panel of geophysical methods were carried out within the caldera (magnetics, gravimetry, electrical methods, etc.). They revealed that the post-collapse history of Siwi involved, not only resurgence tectonics, but also the emplacement of lava fields and of several volcanic edifices. They also demonstrate the presence of an extended hydrothermal system, particularly deep (more than 300 m) and active on the eastern side of the dome. The associated extended alteration may favor the destabilization of the resurgent edifice.
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Elodie Brothelande. Etude d'une résurgence active dans la caldera de Siwi (Tanna, Vanuatu) : le système Yenkahe-Yasur. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015CLF22571⟩. ⟨tel-01247595⟩

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