Hybridation GPS/Vision monoculaire pour la navigation autonome d'un robot en milieu extérieur

Abstract : We are witnessing nowadays the importation of ICT (Information and Communications Technology) in robotics. These technologies will give birth, in upcoming years, to the general public service robotics. This future, if realised, shall be the result of many research conducted in several domains: mechatronics, telecommunications, automatics, signal and image processing, artificial intelligence ... One particularly interesting aspect in mobile robotics is hence the simultaneous localisation and mapping problem. Consequently, to access certain informations, a mobile robot has, in many cases, to map/localise itself inside its environment. The following question is then posed: What precision can we aim for in terms of localisation? And at what cost?In this context, one of the objectives of many laboratories indulged in robotics research, and where results impact directly the industry, is the positioning and mapping of the environment. These latter tasks should be precise, adapted everywhere, integrated, low-cost and real-time. The prediction sensors are inexpensive ones, such as a standard GPS (of metric precision), and a set of embeddable payload sensors (e.g. video cameras). These type of sensors constitute the main support in our work.In this thesis, we shed light on the localisation problem of a mobile robot, which we choose to handle with a probabilistic approach. The procedure is as follows: we first define our "variables of interest" which are a set of random variables, and then we describe their distribution laws and their evolution models. Afterwards, we determine a cost function in such a manner to build up an observer (an algorithmic class where the objective is to minimize the cost function).Our contribution consists of using brute GPS measures (brute measures or raw datas are measures issued from code and phase correlation loops, called pseudo-distance measures of code and phase, respectively) for a low-cost navigation, which is precise in an external suburban environment. By implementing the so-called "whole" property of GPS phase ambiguities, we expand the navigation to achieve a GPS-RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) system in a precise and low-cost local differential mode.Our propositions has been validated through experimentations realized on our robotic demonstrator.
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Jean-Marie Codol. Hybridation GPS/Vision monoculaire pour la navigation autonome d'un robot en milieu extérieur. Vision par ordinateur et reconnaissance de formes [cs.CV]. INSA de Toulouse, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ISAT0060⟩. ⟨tel-01246168⟩

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