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Mercury lattice clock : from the Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy to stable clock operation

Abstract : The first two chapters of thesis describe the basics of optical standards and its applications. Highlight advantages of mercury as a frequency reference in optical lattice clock and give theoretical background about atom-light interaction, origins of systematic shifts and their influence on stability of a clock. The third chapter describes the experimental setup. It includes the schemes and operation of the main laser systems and their characteristics, the vacuum chamber and magneto-optical trapping of atoms. The fourth chapter is about the setup improvements that I made during the thesis. It describes the new doubling stage at 254 nm for the cooling laser system that was designed and implemented during the thesis. The new doubling stage allowed us to perform spectroscopies with long integration times necessary for the measurement of stability of our clock and systematic shifts. The second major and important improvement was the change of the lattice trap cavity. The new lattice cavity allowed us to increase trap depth by a factor of 3, number of trapped atoms by 10, improved the signal to noise ratio and increased stability of the clock. The fifth chapter tells about the obtained results. Thanks to all the technical improvements spectroscopy of the clock transition with the record linewidth of 3.3 Hz was demonstrated. State selection and spectroscopy on dark background were implemented. Stability of the clock was improved by a factor of 5 and measured to be 1.2*10-15 at 1 s. No observable collision shift and second order Zeeman shift were measured at the uncertainty level of ~1*10-16. The shift of the clock frequency due to lattice light was measured to be below 6*10-17.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 15, 2015 - 1:42:15 PM
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Rinat Tyumenev. Mercury lattice clock : from the Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy to stable clock operation. Quantum Physics [quant-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015PA066276⟩. ⟨tel-01243987⟩

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