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Les adaptations du muscle squelettique à une surnutrition expérimentale

Abstract : We studied the effects of a high-fat overfeeding (+757 kcal/d) during 56 days on energy metabolism and skeletal muscle of healthy subjects. ln parallel, we studied the effects of high fructose overfeeding during 7 days on energy metabolism and skeletal muscle of first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients and we performed in vitro studies with human myotubes to identify the mediator contributing to the fructose effects. High-fat and high-fructose overfeeding both contribute to increase body. These changes are associated with a preferential oxidation of carbohydrates instead of lipid. High-fat overfeeding induces in skeletal muscle, a decrease in PDK4 expression that could be the consequences of decreased NAD+ concentration associated with a decreased SlRT1 activity as supported by the hyperacetylation of PGC1alpha. Although this reduction of the SlRT1/PGC-1alpha pathway appears, the high-fat overfeeding is associated with increased mitochondrial gene expression. The high-fructose overfeeding induces in skeletal muscle a decrease in many genes expression related to lipid oxidation and mitochondria as CPT1 and MLYCD. ln vitro experiments suggest an indirect action of fructose in skeletal muscle. This thesis highlights the consequences of a positive energy balance induced by over- consumption of lipid or fructose, which we can find in the general population, on energy metabolism and skeletal muscle gene expression
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  • HAL Id : tel-01242171, version 1

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Kévin Seyssel. Les adaptations du muscle squelettique à une surnutrition expérimentale. Endocrinologie et métabolisme. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LYO10284⟩. ⟨tel-01242171⟩

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