Etude des adaptations mitochondriales dans le muscle squelettique : importance de l'hormèse mitochondriale

Abstract : The mechanisms regulating the metabolic phenotype adaptations in skeletal muscle during physical exercise is still unknown.We studied the mitochondrial hormesis phenomenon that could be defined as a metabolic stress activating the signaling pathways leading to a mitochondrial stimulation (mitochondrial biogenesis).In the first part, we validated the utilization of a new system determining the gas exchange in rat during a treadmill exhaustive exercise. We showed that a submaximal downhill exercise activate moderately the cardiovascular system, without mitochondrial functional impairments and without any augmentation of the systemic ROS production. In the second part, we showed that a mitochondrial uncoupling following a dinitrophenol treatment during 3 weeks in rats induced some metabolic adaptations leading to a higher mitochondrial mass in skeletal muscle. The exercise capacity of these animals is reduced whereas the maximal oxygen consumption is higher.In the last part, we showed that a preconditioning protocol with an acute exercise protected the skeletal muscle mitochondria from the deleterious effects of ischemia-reperfusion. This exercise seems to activate the muscular metabolism via a phenomenon of mitochondrial hormesis activation, allowing an efficient muscular protection.In conclusion, this thesis shows the importance of the mitochondria in terms of qualitative and quantitative aspects and shows the participation of this organelle in the exercise limitation. Moreover, these works suggest that the optimization of the mitochondrial function could be a good guarantee in order to efficiently fight against oxidative stress at the level of the whole organism.
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Anna - Isabel Schlagowski. Etude des adaptations mitochondriales dans le muscle squelettique : importance de l'hormèse mitochondriale. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université de Strasbourg, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014STRAJ105⟩. ⟨tel-01239372⟩

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