Étude des relations entre stimuli cognitifs et la motricité relative à un geste complexe

Abstract : Several studies have shown that cortical motor areas, located in the frontal cortex and responsible for voluntary movement, might be involved in the process of understanding action words. From this point of view, it has been reported that the performance of a simple motor act (e.g.: catching an object) might be improved by the pronunciation, reading or listening to words referring to the action. We approached the relationship between speech and action through the study of the effect of action verbs and other cognitive stimuli, kinesthetic imagery (KI) and mental subtraction (MS), upon the performance of a complex motor act, the Squat vertical jump (SVJ). We measured the height of SVJ in young naive men (7 experiments, n = 114) and women (2 experiments, n = 41) using an Optojump® and a Myotest® apparatuses. The results showed that the silent and loud pronunciation of specific action verb to SVJ (jump), the KI and the MS improved significantly the performance of the movement, in men (up to 2.7 cm) but less in women (up to + 1 cm in the 2 experiments). The results of other experiments obtained with men indicated that pronunciation of the action verb nonspecific to the jump (pinch) increased also the SVJ performance, while the pronunciation or listening to other verbs unrelated to the jump (Jick, move) had no significant effect on the SVJ. A meaningless verb for the French subjects (tiao = jump in Chinese) showed, in turn, no effect as did dream, faJJ and stop. The verb win improved significantly the SVJ height as much as its antonym Jose, thus suggesting a possible influence of affects in the subjects' performance. It appears that the effects of the specific action verb jump did seem effective but not totally exclusive for the enhancement of the SVJ performance, since non-linguistic stimuli (IK) or unrelated to action (MS) may have had a positive effect on the improvement in motor performance. Moreover verbs referring to emotion, unrelated to action, increased the height of SVJ similarly to the specific action verb jump. The results led us to consider the hypothesis that improving the performance of a complex gesture is dependent, a minima, upon the individual's intention, attention, emotions and also, and perhaps most importantly, concepts (we call concepts, the mental representations) as they may be induced by the cerebral processing of words
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Tahar Rabahi. Étude des relations entre stimuli cognitifs et la motricité relative à un geste complexe. Education. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LYO10023⟩. ⟨tel-01235874⟩

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