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Imagerie cellulaire par résonance magnétique rehaussée au manganèse (CelMEMRI)

Abstract : Science has evolved since the 19th century. New tools have appeared such as optical microscopy which gives us the vision of cells and electronic microscopy which leads us into their hearts. The magnetic resonance imaging appeared in the seventies. Evolving over time, the MRI has taken us farther and farther into the secret depths of our brains. The possibility of observing the neuronal activity thanks to the functional imaging is a major evolution. This thesis will show the possibility we have to observe the activity of a single neuron without modification of its network thanks to the manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technique. The study was done on the Aplysia at very high field magnet (17T). These animals are marine gastropod mollusks with a peculiarity: their neurons are of important size and can reach 1 mm in diameter. Their neurons are grouped into several ganglia. My study concerns the buccal ganglion which is the most studied ganglia in the research in electrophysiology. Before making any acquisitions, I had to conceive several microscopic coils adapted to the size of the ganglions. By reducing the size of the coils, the signal of the noise ratio increases. Then, a double coil allowing the simultaneous acquisition of two samples was built. This antenna required the construction of pre-amplifiers operating at 730 MHz. The first series of experiments helped observe the evolution of the neuronal activity according to different stimuli linked to the eating habits of the Aplysia in vivo. Thanks to the technique implemented, I shall show that, using MRI, it is possible to distinguish the activity of each neuron with respect to a stimulus. Afterwards, to continue this work, a second series of experiments was made in vitro. I studied the behavior of neurons when perfused with neural stimulators: dopamine and serotonin, both naturally present in the Aplysia. Generally, all neurons were activated but when observing them individually, I noticed some differences. Studies in electrophysiology will allow us to get a better understanding and a confirmation of the results of this study. The MEMRI technique can be used in the future to study various disorders such as compulsive behaviors, which are present in the Aplysia, and probably have the same origins as in humans, given that many fundamental processes (such as memory studied by Eric Kandel who he demonstrated that human and Aplysia memories works with the same mechanism) are similar between the two species.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 25, 2015 - 6:28:05 PM
Last modification on : Monday, February 10, 2020 - 6:12:50 PM
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Guillaume Radecki. Imagerie cellulaire par résonance magnétique rehaussée au manganèse (CelMEMRI). Instrumentations et Détecteurs [physics.ins-det]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA112212⟩. ⟨tel-01233859⟩

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