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Intégration du collage direct : couches minces métalliques et évolutions morphologiques

Abstract : The semiconductor industry is driven by an increasing need of computation speed and functionalities. In the development of next generation devices the integration of more functionalities in an ever smaller volume becomes paramount. So far, classical planar integration was privileged but it is currently reaching its limits. One solution to this technological challenge is to consider the 3D dimension as pathway of integration. To ensure the vertical stacking of circuits, the development and control of assembly processes becomes crucial. Among the different techniques under development, direct bonding of metal thin films is a promising solution. It is a straightforward option that offers both a mechanical and an electrical link between the active strata.Microstructural, physical and chemical properties of deposited metal thin films were widely reported in previous state of art. However, they have not yet been studied in the specific bonding environment. The main goal of our study is to pinpoint the impact of this environment during and after the process of assembly.Direct bonding process consists in putting into contact smooth surfaces at room temperature and ambient air which in appropriate conditions leads to the establishment of attractive forces. Since bonding is not operated under vacuum, adsorbed species are trapped at the interface and the metal bonding suffers from the formation of native oxide. The encapsulation of these species as well as the native metal oxide interfere with the bonding process and the establishment of an electrical contact.In this study, various bonded structures have been realized using an extended set of metals in different thin film configurations. Metal oxide layers impact is clearly highlighted via the monitoring of adhesion properties of the assemblies. In the Cu-Cu direct bonding case, the interfacial water reaction is primordial in the strengthening of bonding toughness at room temperature. At higher temperature, oxide dissolution and vertical grain growth are driving forces in the sealing of bonding interface. The microstructure play a role in all these phenomena since grain boundaries are favorite diffusion pathway in thin films. Considering the temperature limitation imposed by the integration, we also highlight that refractory metal thin films needs another bonding approach compared to the transient metals. The understanding of bonding mechanisms throws new light on the use of direct bonding process in the realization of future electrical components.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 25, 2015 - 6:18:05 PM
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Paul Gondcharton. Intégration du collage direct : couches minces métalliques et évolutions morphologiques. Matériaux. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAI048⟩. ⟨tel-01233855⟩

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