Modelling the long-term deployment of electricity storage in the global energy system

Abstract : The current development of wind and solar power sources calls for an improvement of longtermenergy models. Indeed, high shares of variable wind and solar productions have shortandlong-term impacts on the power system, requiring the development of flexibility options:fast-reacting power plants, demand response, grid enhancement or electricity storage. Ourfirst main contribution is the modelling of electricity storage and grid expansion in the POLESmodel (Prospective Outlook on Long-term Energy Systems). We set up new investmentmechanisms, where storage development is based on several combined economic values.After categorising the long-term energy models and the power sector modelling tools in acommon typology, we showed the need for a better integration of both approaches.Therefore, the second major contribution of our work is the yearly coupling of POLES to ashort-term optimisation of the power sector operation, with the European Unit CommitmentAnd Dispatch model (EUCAD). The two-way data exchange allows the long-term coherentscenarios of POLES to be directly backed by the short-term technical detail of EUCAD. Ourresults forecast a strong and rather quick development of the cheapest flexibility options: gridinterconnections, pumped hydro storage and demand response programs, including electricvehicle charging optimisation and vehicle-to-grid storage. The more expensive batterystorage presumably finds enough system value in the second half of the century. A sensitivityanalysis shows that improving the fixed costs of batteries impacts more the investments thanimproving their efficiency. We also show the explicit dependency between storage andvariable renewable energy sources.
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Jacques Després. Modelling the long-term deployment of electricity storage in the global energy system. Electric power. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAT073⟩. ⟨tel-01231455v2⟩

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