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ADAM30 et métabolisme de l'APP : implication dans le développement physiopathologique de la maladie d'Alzheimer

Abstract : Progressive intra-cerebral accumulation of amyloid peptides formed after sequential cleavage of the amyloid peptide precursor (APP) by secretases , is a central mecanism for Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, a better understanding of APP regulation and homeostasy is now crucial. With this background, we postulate that the characterization of new actors in the APP metabolism could provide a more subtle understanding of this APP metabolism and trafficking. From their obvious implication in brain (development, plasticity and repair) and in APP metabolism (α-secretases), ADAMs (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) are an important protein proteins family which still have some undetermined function or role. Previously, a transcriptomic approach targeting ADAMs family bas been done at the laboratory on Alzheimer’s patient or control brains and found ADAM30 as under-expressed in Alzheimer’s patient brains. On cellular models, we confirmed that ADAM30 under-expression was associate with an increase in production/secretion of all the APP metabolim byproducts. Opposite results were found with ADAM30 over-expression. To replicate those results in another model closest to human pathophysiology, we have developed a triple transgenic mice model over-expressing APPSweInd and conditionally over-expressing ADAM30. In this model, we have observed and measured a decrease in amyloid deposits in mice brains over-expressing ADAM30. Secondly, because ADAM30 did not modulate secretase activities and did not cleave APP directly, we decided to determine ADAM30 substrats in the APP metabolism context. With a systematic approach, we have determined that Cathepsin D (CTSD) and Insulin Receptor Substrat 4 (IRS4) are two ADAM30 potential substrats. In our cellular models, we have found that ADAM30 is able to cleave and activate CTSD. This CTSD activity is required for ADAM30 action on APP metabolism. We have determined that ADAM30 specific action for CTSD is dependent on lysosome adressing sequence localised in APP C-terminal part. CTSD is a lysosomal protein and so ADAM30 would make CTSD specific activation easier. This mecanism would be able to increase APP degradation in endosome/lysosome pathway and reduce APP entry in its metabolism. To better understand ADAM30 specific action on CTSD and APP, we begin to investigate the potential role of IRS4 and the relation between insulin signaling pathway ans APP metabolism. Combined together, those data suggest that ADAM30 is a new APP metabolism actor, involved in an early APP regulation and degradation pathway dependent on lysosome activation. This study participate in a better understanding of the fine mecanism regulations involved in Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiological process.
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Florent Letronne. ADAM30 et métabolisme de l'APP : implication dans le développement physiopathologique de la maladie d'Alzheimer. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LIL2S062⟩. ⟨tel-01230683⟩

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