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Tomographie crustale des Pyrénées et des régions avoisinantes par corrélation de bruit

Abstract : In this thesis, we applied the ambient noise correlation method in the very heterogeneous region of the Pyrenees and the surrounding areas (mountain belt and thick sedimentary basins). The dataset used is a combination of two temporary broadband arrays from France and Spain (PYROPE and IBERARRAY) and stations of the French and Catalan permanent broadband arrays. Seismic noise recorded over years by the 158 stations was used to calculate correlations in a period range of 5-55 s. Observed Rayleigh and Love wave group velocities between pairs of stations were used as input to a linearized inversion scheme, where we obtained for each period group velocities maps, with a lateral resolution of approximately 40 km. The comparison between the two type of waves demonstrates radial anisotropy at short periods, while little or no radial anisotropy is present at long periods. We developed a new strategy for the inversion of dispersion curves to shear wave velocity models and applied it to the Rayleigh waves group velocity. This approach is based on the combination of a full exploration of the model space and a linearized inversion. The obtained model, validated by the comparison of our results with the results of other methods, is the first complete 3-D crustal Vs model of the region. We in particular note : (1) Atypical S-waves profiles in the Eastern part of the Massif Central which indicate a thinned crust and low velocities in the uppermost mantle. (2) High-velocity anomalies at 25 km depth beneath the Labourd-Mauléon area and the on-land continuation of the Parentis basin. We suggest that they are the traces of the hyper-extension which might have preceded the collision phase which lead to the formation of the Pyrenees. The strong heterogeneity of our study region is also well-adapted to analyze the influence of the ray deviations on the reconstruction of the model. First results show that the reconstructed model, using great-circle paths, does not explain the ray deviations as observed by beamforming. Observed deviations therefore carry the potential of improving the model in a combined inversion scheme.
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Marie Macquet. Tomographie crustale des Pyrénées et des régions avoisinantes par corrélation de bruit. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENU037⟩. ⟨tel-01229051⟩

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