Échange de spin et dynamique d’aimantation d’un gaz quantique dipolaire

Abstract : This Thesis reports on several experimental studies of magnetic properties of a Chromium Bose-Einsteincondensate loaded into a 3D optical lattice, focusing on the effects induced by dipolar interactions.We show that in a 3D lattice dipolar relaxation is a resonant process due to the reduction of the density ofaccessible orbital states. These resonances are observed for magnetic fields Bres such that the Zeeman energyreleased matches an excitation towards higher-energy bands of the lattice. We can thus inhibit those processes byapplying a field different from Bres. Analyses of the resonances allowed us to probe the lattice 3D band structureas well as to demonstrate the effects of local interactions between atoms.We study spin exchange dynamics in a 3D lattice. We especially observed for the first time spin exchangebetween atoms localized in different lattice sites mediated by dipolar interactions. These studies are the firststep toward a new exploration of magnetism in lattice. Varying the depth of the lattice we study these effects inthe superfluid regime, well described by mean filed theories, as well as in the strongly correlated regime, whosetheoretical description is still challenging.Finally, we study the evolution dynamics of two giant spins interacting through dipolar interactions. Thecondensate being initially splitted in half, atoms from the two clouds are prepared in opposite spin states thusproducing two giant spins ±3×N. We show that any spin dynamics is energetically inhibited for large spinswhich is well accounted for by a classical theory
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Aurelie de Paz. Échange de spin et dynamique d’aimantation d’un gaz quantique dipolaire. Gaz Quantiques [cond-mat.quant-gas]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCD096⟩. ⟨tel-01225113v2⟩

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