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Les dates de naissance des créances

Abstract : It is the laws governing companies experiencing difficulties which have revealed the complexity of determining the dates of the origination of the claims. And yet this appears to be fundamental in private law. As it constitutes the criterion for implementing certain legal mechanisms, it epitomizes the existence of the claim and hence represents a challenge for any rule of law in which the existence of this claim is a goal or condition. There are two conflicting doctrinal currents: the traditional approach sets the date of origination at the stage of the formation of the contract, while modern approaches situate it at the stage of the execution of the contract. The materialistic approach, based on the law governing companies experiencing difficulties, staggers the origination of the price debt over the period of the execution of the service. The periodical approach, which relies on a doctrinal reflection on successive execution contracts, is that of the re-origination of all the claims under the contract at each contractual period. An examination of the modern approaches, under the auspices of the legal mechanisms which can only epitomize the true date of origination of the authentic claim leads to the invalidity thereof. The traditional approach is therefore once again consecrated. But the resistance constituted by the laws governing companies in difficulty cannot rely on the technique of legal fiction, because other manifestations of the same phenomenon can be identified outside this domain. Therefore, a change of paradigm is in order if the hiatus is to be resolved. Behind this persistent phenomenon lies in fact another vision, another concept of the claim: the economic claim which, interwoven with the legal claim in the private law system, supplements it. The duality of the dates of origination therefore conceals in its bosom the duality of the very concept of a claim, the traditional legal claim and the economic claim. The economic claim is not a subjective personal right. It is not a legal claim. It is not autonomous of the legal claim and must not be confused with a claim originating in a case of unwarranted enrichment. The economic claim represents the value produced by the contract as the service which characterizes it is provided. It permits the rectification of the ordinary application of the concept of legal claim by ensuring the function of correlating the proceeds with the costs of a commodity or an activity. Its domains of application are varied. In addition to its use in accounting and fiscal law, the economic claim permits the determination of the portion transferred in the context of the transfer of a contract, the determination of the collateral consisting in a special-purpose fund in the context of a legal joint estate, a limited liability individual contractor or a trust, as well as the determination of the liabilities which escape the discipline of collective proceedings. In these domains, it is therefore not the date of origination of the legal claim which applies, but the date of origination of the economic claim. The coherence of the private law system is therefore restored as concerns the date of the origination of the claim.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 14, 2015 - 12:25:06 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, April 14, 2020 - 12:22:33 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01215486, version 1

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Renaud Noirot. Les dates de naissance des créances. Droit. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA05D016⟩. ⟨tel-01215486⟩

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