Implication des bactéries du genre Arthrobacter dans la coloration de surface des fromages à pâte molle et croûte lavée

Abstract : Smear-ripened soft cheeses, characterized by their orange-red color on rind, are dairy products widely consumed in Europe. The surface color is due essentially to carotenoids, in combination with other pigments, produced by the cheese microflora during ripening. Arthrobacter sp. is one of the major microorganisms occurred on the surface of cheeses, particularly in smear-ripened cheeses, where it is assumed to be responsible for yellow pigmentation of the cheese rind because of its characteristic overall color and its involvement at the different stages of cheese ripening. Pigment-producing microorganisms are commonly found in the nature. Nowadays, pigment-producing microorganisms have been increasing of interest in many scientific disciplines and applications have broadened in the industry because of their biotechnological advantages. As the present trend entirely the world is shifting toward the use of eco and biodegradable products, the requirement for natural ingredients, especially natural colorants, is increasing day by day. The first part of this thesis highlights the crucial role of microorganisms as potential sources of natural pigment production by reviewing a large number of research works related to pigments biosynthesized by microorganisms which were published over the past 10 years by private companies or academic laboratories, with an emphasis on pigments providing for the application in foods. Since the genus Arthrobacter is a group of metabolically versatile bacteria which widely distributed in nature, some parts of this thesis include the review presenting the possibility to produce pigmented Arthrobacter sp. biomasses as novel sources of food colorants; furthermore, the beneficial aspects of Arthrobacter sp. and their promising significances in the dairy industry are also addressed. Considering the significance of Arthrobacter sp. in smear-ripened cheeses, the economically important dairy products, the aim of research described in this thesis is to investigate the implication of this bacterium, particularly Arthrobacter arilaitensis, in the coloration of these cheeses in several aspects covering (i) diversity of pigment production among strains, (ii) kinetic of pigment synthesis, (iii) identification of chemical characteristic of pigments, (iv) colorimetric characterization of pigmentation, and (v) influences of environment i.e. light, pH, NaCl and deacidifying yeasts on the production and the color development of pigments. Among 14 strains of Arthrobacter arilaitensis studied, two groups depending on their ability of carotenoid production could be divided, carotenoid-producing and non-pigmented strains. A growth-associated pigmentation probably applied to indicate the kinetic of carotenoid synthesis by these strains. The diversity of pigment concentration among the carotenoid-producing strains was low, related to the characteristics of pigmentation determined by quantitative spectrocolorimetry. The HPLC-PDA-APCI-MS analysis of extracted pigments of a representative strains revealed 8 different carotenoids showing C50 decaprenoxanthin as the major accumulated carotenoids. Changes in the color development of A.arilaitensis strains under the influences of physical, chemical and biological factors were obtained through spectrocolorymetry. Three groups depending on a coloration behavior affected by light were illustrated e.g. positively sensitive, negatively sensitive and not sensitive to light. The acidic pH and high concentration of salt showed the efficiency inhibited effect on pigmentation of a representative strain of carotenoid-producing A. arilaitensis. In combination of pH and NaCl, deacidifying yeasts were obviously related to the pigment production of A. arilaitensis. The highest average value of color saturation were observed on the studied media deacidified by Debaryomyces hansenii at pH 7.0, displaying intense yellow.
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Nuthathai Dupuis. Implication des bactéries du genre Arthrobacter dans la coloration de surface des fromages à pâte molle et croûte lavée. Sciences agricoles. Université de la Réunion, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LARE0012⟩. ⟨tel-01207493⟩

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