Quelle est la contribution des lisières forestières à la structuration des assemblages d’abeilles sauvages dans les paysages agricoles ?

Abstract : More diverse and abundant assemblages of wild pollinators should provide a more stable and effective pollination service for a wider range of crops. The disruption of the balance between semi-natural and manmade environments in the mosaic landscape is often invoked to explain the decline of pollinators. The survival of wild bees is highly dependent on the availability, within species dispersal radius, of both floral resources and nesting and wintering micro-habitats. In a literature review, we analyzed the effect of proximity to the forest or the proportion of forest in the landscape on both ecosystem services (pollination and pest control) and dis-services (pests) provided by arthropods to crops. Our own work provides the first in-depth demonstration of the interest of forest edges for bees pollinating crops in temperate regions. At the scale of oilseed and apple crops, we demonstrated that forest edges (i) are the nesting / mating sites for many spring species, (ii) provide a diversity of favorable floral resources at early spring, and (iii) have a season-dependent interest for bee guilds. The diversity of wild bees decreases within the field with distance from the edge, depending on the bee flight abilities. In light of our results, we suggest an agro-ecological management of agricultural land incorporating forest edges in a woody network in favour of wild bees.
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Samantha Bailey. Quelle est la contribution des lisières forestières à la structuration des assemblages d’abeilles sauvages dans les paysages agricoles ?. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Orléans, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ORLE2056⟩. ⟨tel-01203346⟩

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