Criblage d’activités biologiques de plantes endémiques ou indigènes de La Réunion - Recherche de molécules antivirales ciblant le virus du chikungunya

Abstract : The aims of this PhD work were to identify plants and/or molecules with cytotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or antiviral (chikungunya virus , CHIKV) activities in order to find therapeutic alternatives towards oxidative stress and inflammation, mechanisms involved in chronic noncommunicable diseases (diabetes, obesity ...), and chikungunya disease, reemerging vector-borne disease. The first part of this work presents the results obtained from a biological screening carried out on a selection of eighteen endemic and indigenous plants of La Réunion. The targeted activities were cytotoxicity on a human cell line (THP-1), antioxidant activities evaluated using an in cellulo hemolysis assay and four chemical tests (TEAC / DPPH / FRAP / ORAC) together with an evaluation of the content of phenolic compounds (FOLIN test) and anti-inflammatory activity tested in murine macrophages (RAW cells-BlueTM). The results allowed to highlight activities of different extracts in particular : cytotoxic for Carissa spinarum, antioxidant for Dryopteris wallichiana and Agarista buxifolia and anti-inflammatory for Stillingia lineata and Indigofera ammoxylum.The second part of this work is devoted to the phytochemical study of Stillingia lineata, an indigenous species of La Réunion chosen because of the results obtained in this preliminary biological screening and those carried out in Phytochik programme. Bioassay-guided fractionation performed on Vero cells (green monkey kidney cells Cercopithecus aethiops) infected with CHIKV led to the isolation of three rare macrocycle-type diterpenes called tonantzitlolone and a new pimarane. The 4'-acetoxytonantzitlolone was identified as a candidate molecule against CHIKV (EC50 = 7 μM). Structure-activity relationships have been defined, the presence of an oxygenated group on the side chain of tonantzitlolones seems to play an important role in the antiviral response of the diterpene skeleton.
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Sophie Techer. Criblage d’activités biologiques de plantes endémiques ou indigènes de La Réunion - Recherche de molécules antivirales ciblant le virus du chikungunya. Biologie végétale. Université de la Réunion, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LARE0014⟩. ⟨tel-01199856⟩

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