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Sociabilités et imaginaires coloniaux dans le Nord de 1870 à 1918

Abstract : For about fifteen years in France, we have assisted, with a return in strength of “the colonial history”, stimulated by burning hot memory questions, like those of the war of Algeria, the Atlantic draft, slavery in the Antilles, as many topics become classical of a trend with the colonial repentance.Obviously eager to think the integration of the memory of colonization of the national identity, the general public is thus left touched by the rediscovery of the colonial past of France, in particular by the means of film productions like Empire of the medium of the South of the scenario writer Éric Deroo, who recalls the history of the Viêt - Nam and French Indo-China.These initiatives incarnate forms of persistence of the history of the relations between France and its ex-empire, but also a will to transmit the memory without limiting it to the only colonial conflicts. They contribute to maintain a kind of emotional tie of the French towards their old colonies.By reactivating their memory, Western companies, and the French company in particular, thus ask the question of the returns effects of the colonial time on the current definition of the national identities. If colonialism is often regarded as a form of circulation to one way, metropolises towards their colonies, the evolution from the points of view and the historical research allow the examination of the influence of colonization in Europe, nowadays, but also during the colonial period. This circulation empire-metropolis is indicated by the expressions “returns effects” or “effects of reverberation”, which relate to in particular circulations of representations.In the line of recent university work, which proposes various regional approaches of the phenomena of reception and appropriation of the colonial fact, this work proposes the study in the way in which phenomena of cultural opening related to the colonial expansion take place with a regional scale, whereas, for a long time, following work of the historian Raoul Girardet, the national scale was privileged.This work tends to check the assumption of the construction of the identity of people of North, inside the nation, by integrating the influence of the colonial expansion. The American historian Herman Lebovics helps us to refine this assumption when it affirms in true France, that there exist parallels between the average employees by the French powers to gain the honesty of a subjugated foreign population, and the cultural device set up to cause the honesty of the French people.He evokes in particular the preserving ethnology, which draws the attention of the authorities to the need to preserve the colonial cultures and to revive the regional cultures, in the condition of not generating political claims going against the existence of a centralized State, resulting from the revolutionary tradition jacobine.This research plans to appreciate the returns effects of the construction of colonial empire towards a region of the metropolis and its inhabitants, by studying the changes of management of the “glance” and the widening of the scales, of the room to the national then room with the empire. The change of focal distance thus allows a study, which examines local realities and problems and defines a specific reception and an appropriation of the imperial fact, the exaltation of the empire becoming at the same time an element of the local identity and an element of integration of the area to one national identity.
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Anthony Darthoit. Sociabilités et imaginaires coloniaux dans le Nord de 1870 à 1918. Histoire. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LIL30036⟩. ⟨tel-01199182⟩

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