L'antisynapse, un complexe de signalisation transitoire situé aux antipodes de la synapse immunologique

Abstract : During the immune response, T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APC) are known to develop strong interactions. The immunological synapse (IS), structure established at the interface between the two cells, is the site where a cascade of signaling events is initiated and may lead to a physiological response. T lymphocyte undergoes a profound rearrangement in the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm: proteins which are involved in the signaling are recruited to the immunological synapse. We have recently described a new structure that we have called antisynapse (ASI), located at the cell pole opposite to the synapse1. The purpose of this work is to characterize the components of this new structure and their kinetic of appearance and disappearance. To study this structure, we made in vitro contact between APC and T lymphocytes and we observed these conjugates either in live or fixed conditions. Surprisingly, the antisynapse contains most of the signaling molecules classically reported as components of the immunological synapse such as LAT, CD3, Lck or PI3K. By using the fluorescent probe ROZA that we recently developed1, we have shown that ZAP-70 is activated at the antisynapse. This observation is consistent with the fact that we have also observed the presence of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins at the ASI. Interestingly, we have observed that LFA-1, a protein involved in the adherence, is also found at the ASI. Our results indicate that this transient structure develops frequently and appears rapidly after the contact between the T cell (around one minute) and the APC. Surprisingly, antisynapse formation is independent on TCR signaling but is triggered by adhesion. Furthermore, it disappears using the microtubule network. The role of the antisynapse is currently under investigation but we have shown that it constitutes a stock of proteins ready to go to the forming immune synapse. We currently try to take advantage of this structure to better understand how the T cell signalosome may assemble and to find out if, functionally, the T cell takes advantage of this structure. We also try to understand how this paradoxical structure can appear so rapidly and what are the signaling pathways involved in its establishment.
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Chloé Guedj. L'antisynapse, un complexe de signalisation transitoire situé aux antipodes de la synapse immunologique. Immunologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05T018⟩. ⟨tel-01196003⟩

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