Ultrasound cardiac therapy guided by elastography and ultrafast imaging

Abstract : Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 2-3% of the European and North-American population, whereas ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT) is related to an important risk of sudden death. AF and VT originate from dysfunctional electrical activity in cardiac tissues. Minimally-invasive approaches such as Radio-Frequency Catheter Ablation (RFCA) have revolutionized the treatment of these diseases; however the success rate of RFCA is currently limited by the lack of monitoring techniques to precisely control the extent of thermally ablated tissue.The aim of this thesis is to propose novel ultrasound-based approaches for minimally invasive cardiac ablation under guidance of ultrasound imaging. For this, first, we validated the accuracy and clinical viability of Shear-Wave Elastography (SWE) as a real-time quantitative imaging modality for thermal ablation monitoring in vivo. Second we implemented SWE on an intracardiac transducer and validated the feasibility of evaluating thermal ablation in vitro and in vivo on beating hearts of a large animal model. Third, a dual-mode intracardiac transducer was developed to perform both ultrasound therapy and imaging with the same elements, on the same device. SWE-controlled High-Intensity-Focused-Ultrasound thermal lesions were successfully performed in vivo in the atria and the ventricles of a large animal model. At last, SWE was implemented on a transesophageal ultrasound imaging and therapy device and the feasibility of transesophageal approach was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. These novel approaches may lead to new clinical devices for a safer and controlled treatment of a wide variety of cardiac arrhythmias and diseases.
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Wojciech Kwiecinski. Ultrasound cardiac therapy guided by elastography and ultrafast imaging. Imaging. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2015. English. 〈NNT : 2015PA066131〉. 〈tel-01195747〉

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