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Manipulation cohérente d'un condensat de Bose-Einstein d'ytterbium sur la transition "d'horloge" : de la spectroscopie au magnétisme artificiel

Abstract : In this thesis, we report on the construction of an experiment aimed at trapping andcooling an ytterbium gaz, in order to realize artificial gauge fields. In the long term, thissetup will allow the study of strongly correlated quantum states which are atomic analogsof integer or fractional quantum Hall systems.We will first present the building of our experimental apparatus, and the optical coolingof ytterbium (174Yb). In particular, we will report on the design of a Zeeman slower,allowing for the direct loading of a magneto-optical trap operated on ytterbium’s intercombinationtransition 1S0 ! 3P1. The atomic cloud is then transported in an opticaldipole trap. A subsequent evaporative cooling stage results in the production of Bose-Einstein condensates of about 5 × 104 atoms.We then describe the construction of an ultra-narrow laser system at 578nm, able todrive ytterbium’s « clock » transition 1S0 ! 3P0. The laser frequency is stabilized using ahigh-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, whose properties are precisely characterized in this work.Specifically, we present a method to calibrate the absolute frequency of the cavity bycomparison with an optical transition of molecular iodine.Finally, we show the results of spectroscopic measurements done on ytterbium condensatesusing the ultra-narrow laser. We also report on the coherent manipulation of thecondensate on the clock transition, consisting in the observation of Rabi oscillations.These preliminary experiments should allow for a measurement of ytterbium’s scatteringproperties.Keywords : cold atoms, optical lattices, Bose-Einstein condensates, ultra-stable lasers,clock transition, quantum simulation.
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Alexandre Dareau. Manipulation cohérente d'un condensat de Bose-Einstein d'ytterbium sur la transition "d'horloge" : de la spectroscopie au magnétisme artificiel. Physique [physics]. Ecole normale supérieure - ENS PARIS, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENSU0018⟩. ⟨tel-01194429v3⟩



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