Étude du rôle des cellules musculaires lisses vasculaires (CMLV) et des anticorps anti-CMLV dans la pathogénie de l’artérite à cellules géantes (maladie de Horton)

Abstract : Background : Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a large vessel vasculitis and its diagnosis usually relies on the identification of an inflammatory infiltrate made of mononuclear cells and giant cells upon temporal artery biopsy. There is also a remodeling process in the arterial wall due to an excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) which can sometimes lead to arterial occlusion. Purpose: Identify auto-antibodies targeting either endothelial cells (EC) and/or VSMC during GCA and better understand the role of VSMC in the remodeling process. Methods : Auto-antibodies were detected by a 2-dimensionnal immunoblot and their target antigens were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteoms of umbilical artery, pulmonary artery and aorta VSMC were compared by 2 dimension differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). In order to identify mechanisms involved in VSMC proliferation in GCA, we used both 2D-DIGE and pan genomic chips in order to compare VSMC isolated at the time of temporal artery biopsy (TAB) from patients with a final diagnosis of GCA or another diagnosis. Results : In 15 patients with GCA, we identified lamin, vinculin and Annexin A5 as target antigens of anti-VSMC antibodies. Target antigens were linked with Grb2, an adaptator protein involved in VSMC proliferation. Normal VSMC originating from different vascular beds have differ in protein contents with differential expression of cytoskeleton and energy metabolism proteins. We compared VSMC from TAB with Ingenuity software and identified endothelin-1 (ET-1) and paxillin as proteins involved in vessel remodeling. We confirmed by immunohistichemistry and qPCR that ET-1 and its receptor ETAR and ETBR were expressed in temporal arteries from patients with GCA. Last, we reduced VSMC proliferation with Macitentan, an ETAR and ETBR antagonist and significantly inhibited VSMC proliferation with its active metabolite whereas other ET-1 inhibitors had no effect. Conclusion : We identified anti-VSMC auto-antibodies in patients with GCA. Their pathogenic role remains to be determined. Normal VSMC from different vascular locations differ in protein conten which might reflect different phenotypes and different properties. The escessive proliferation of VSMC from patients with GCA was inhibited by Macitentan. This drug might constitute a future therapeutic option.
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Alexis Régent. Étude du rôle des cellules musculaires lisses vasculaires (CMLV) et des anticorps anti-CMLV dans la pathogénie de l’artérite à cellules géantes (maladie de Horton). Cardiologie et système cardiovasculaire. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA05S021⟩. ⟨tel-01191490⟩

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