Relevé d'office du juge et droit de la consommation

Abstract : The office of the judge is organized by the rules of the Code of civil procedure: the judge must solve the litigations in law, and that, in order to do that, he benefits from the right to raise his own motion. This mission raises a particular difficulty in consumer law, especially regarding the law of the unfair clauses and consumer credit: these fields imply taking into consideration the contractual imbalance due to the weakness of the consumer. The office of the judge is confronted to the necessity to protect this « weak party », which raises the question of knowing if the judge has the right to raise his own motion. The difficulty of the answer opens a rich controversy (Part 1): the legislator, at the whim of the reforms, and the judge, at the whim of the reversals, will enrich this latter to finally come to a recognition of the right to raise the motion of the judge (Part 2).First the national judge clearly disapproved the exercising of the right to raise one's own motion in the name of the concept of public order of protection. The controversy was finally submitted to the assessment of the Community judge who enabling a recognition of the right to raise the motion of the judge. Driven by the Community jurisprudence, the French legislator finally lined up with this requirement. Then, a new impulse of the Community jurisprudence will question again the national law by the recognition of the duty of the judge to raise his own motion. The new law « Hamon » of march 17th 2014 and the recent internal jurisprudence are not evidence of a real satisfaction of the requirement set down by the Community law.We must embrace, from this laborious construction of the jurisprudence and internal legislation, the difficulty raised by the question of the right for the judge to raise his own motion concerning law consumption, which calls for future evolutions.
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Annelieke Gillotot. Relevé d'office du juge et droit de la consommation. Droit. Université d'Avignon, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014AVIG2040⟩. ⟨tel-01189277⟩

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