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Évaluation de l’approche métabolomique pour l’authentification des extraits naturels utilisés dans le secteur arômes et parfums

Abstract : Some natural extracts are very scarce and expensive. The temptation is therefore very high for producers or brokers to resort to adulterations. Mixing of extracts from related botanical origins, from different geographical origins, addition of synthetic compounds with natural occurrence in the extract, or addition of another vegetal extract, use of phytosanitary products, non-standardized extraction processes, are some examples. The quality differences are more and more difficult to detect. The objective of this PhD study was to develop a fast, efficient and non-targeted methodology. Metabolomics approach in UHPLC-HRMS was developped to identify defects or fraudulent practices in absolutes used in flavour and fragrances. These identifications are realized by the detection of chemical markers. Absolutes are a great challenge: between 50 and 95 % of the extracts consist of non-volatile compounds; moreover these products are seldom described in literature. The quest for validation for authenticity is then much more complex than in cases of volatile extracts such as essential oils, whose composition can be more easily determined by robust analytical instruments and numerous databases. Two symbolic plants used in perfumery were studied: viola (Viola odorata) and rose (Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia). Markers of French origin were identified for viola, and markers of R. centifolia were identified for rose. Their characterizations were nevertheless the fundamental limit for this technique being at trace level in the extract. This work demonstrated the performance and limitation of the non-targeted metabolomics approach on absolutes, which are specialties of perfumery.
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Laure Saint-Lary. Évaluation de l’approche métabolomique pour l’authentification des extraits naturels utilisés dans le secteur arômes et parfums. Autre. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015NICE4025⟩. ⟨tel-01189109⟩

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