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Impact des extraits organiques de particules diesel (DEPe) sur la physiologie de macrophages humains polarisés in vitro

Abstract : Macrophages (MΦ), well-known to play a key role in immune response, also respond to environmental toxic chemicals such as diesel exhaust particles (DEP), an air pollutant recently classified as carcinogenic to humans. MΦ are heterogeneous and plastic cells which activate according to their microenvironment into either an M1 subtype (so called classically activated or pro-inflammatory) under IFNγ and LPS stimulation or an M2 subtype (so called alternatively activated or anti-inflammatory) under IL-4 and/or IL-13 stimulation. However, potential effects of DEPs on M1/M2 MΦ polarization remain poorly documented. First, we characterized the expression marker of in vitro M-CSF-differentiated MΦ from human monocytes and activated into the M1 or M2 subtypes. Our main results show that M-CSF-generated MΦ considered as anti-inflammatory are actually able to switch to an M1 phenotype after IFNγ/LPS stimulation. Furthermore, the markers identified in this study were used to assess the impact of organic extracts of DEP (DEPe) on MΦ polarization and more generally on their physiology. DEPe alter some M1 and M2 markers expressed by polarized MΦ, without causing the overall inhibition of the M1 and M2 polarization process or the switch to a different phenotype. This phenotype alteration is associated with a decrease in the LPS-dependent inflammatory response in M1 MΦ and the chemotactic capacities in M2 MΦ. DEPe decrease the secretion of some cytokines and chemokines such as IL-6, IL-12p40 and CCL18 via AhR and/or Nrf2 activation. At the same time, we show that M1 and M2 MΦ in response to DEPe are able to secrete a sufficient level of a pro-fibrotic growth factor, the platelet derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) via AhR activation, leading to stimulation of lung fibroblast proliferation. Finally, these works show that DEPe have immunotoxic properties with regards to the physiology of human in vitro polarized MΦ. This immunotoxicity may then contribute to the deleterious effects of these urban environmental contaminants on human health.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01188679
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Submitted on : Monday, August 31, 2015 - 1:48:06 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, January 28, 2020 - 3:27:59 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01188679, version 1

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Marie Jaguin. Impact des extraits organiques de particules diesel (DEPe) sur la physiologie de macrophages humains polarisés in vitro. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Rennes 1, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015REN1S011⟩. ⟨tel-01188679⟩

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