Branching random walks, time-inhomogeneous environment, selection

Abstract : In this thesis, we take interest in the branching random walk, a particles system, in which particles move and reproduce independently. The aim is to study the rhythm at which these particles invade their environment, a quantity which often reveals information on the past of the extremal individuals. We take care of two particular variants of branching random walk, that we describe below.In the first variant, the way individuals behave evolves with time. This model has been introduced by Fang and Zeitouni in 2010. This time-dependence can be a slow evolution of the reproduction mechanism of individuals, at macroscopic scale, in which case the maximal displacement is obtained through the resolution of a convex optimization problem. A second kind of time-dependence is to sample at random, at each generation, the way individuals behave. This model has been introduced and studied in an article in collaboration with Piotr Mi\l{}os.In the second variant, individuals endure a Darwinian selection mechanism. The position of an individual is understood as its fitness, and the displacement of a child with respect to its parent is associated to the process of heredity. In such a process, the total size of the population is fixed to some integer N, and at each step, only the N fittest individuals survive. This model was introduced by Brunet, Derrida, Mueller and Munier. In a first time, we took interest in a mechanism of reproduction which authorises some large jumps. In the second model we considered, the total size N of the population may depend on time.
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Bastien Mallein. Branching random walks, time-inhomogeneous environment, selection. Probability [math.PR]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015PA066104⟩. ⟨tel-01188650v2⟩

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