Etude rétrospective de l'influence des polymorphismes génétiques de CYP3A4, CYP3A5 et ABCB1 des donneurs et des receveurs sur les effets des immunosuppresseurs en transplantation hépatique

Abstract : Liver transplantation is now a well mastered surgery with standardized procedures, but the long-term clinical outcomes of the graft and the patient remain uncertain. The pharmacogenetic study of the calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) cyclosporine and tacrolimus should help to understand the variability of their pharmacokinetics and therapeutic or side effects. In the first part of this work, we reviewed the main pharmacogenetic studies of CNI in liver transplantation, focusing on the three polymorphisms mostly involved in CNI pharmacokinetics (CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 et ABCB1 exons 12, 21, 26) and their possible associations with clinical outcomes. To date, the only pharmacogenetic test consensually recommended in organ transplantation is the CYP3A5*3 variant for a better selection of the initial tacrolimus dose in kidney transplantation. The second part of this work was a retrospective cohort study in liver transplantation to investigate the influence of the above mentioned donor’s and recipient’s genotypes, involved in the metabolism (CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3) and the membrane transport (ABCB1 exons 12, 21 and 26) of cyclosporine and tacrolimus. 170 patients were enrolled in this study with a mean follow-up of more than ten years. Our main results are that: the recipient CYP3A5*1 allele was associated with a higher risk of graft loss than the CYP3A5*3 allele; the recipient ABCB1 exon 12 TT genotype was associated with a lower risk of chronic rejection than the CC genotype; overexposure to CNI, initial renal function and recipient age were associated with a higher risk of post-transplantation renal dysfunction. No genetic factor was associated with patient survival, acute rejection, liver function tests, recurrence of viral or other initial liver disease, or nephrotoxicity. Prospective characterization of both recipient and donor CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and ABCB1 polymorphisms could help to optimize immunosuppressive therapy for each candidate to liver transplantation. Further studies (pharmacogenetics of calcineurin pathway, early biomarkers of graft dysfunction, ...), should help to define a personalized profile for each transplant patient in order to best adapt the immunosuppressive strategy on the long term.
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Marilyne Gratien-Debette. Etude rétrospective de l'influence des polymorphismes génétiques de CYP3A4, CYP3A5 et ABCB1 des donneurs et des receveurs sur les effets des immunosuppresseurs en transplantation hépatique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIMO0032⟩. ⟨tel-01186403⟩

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