Dynamiques de gouttes funambules : applications à la fabrication de laine de verre

Abstract : This thesis deals with several dynamic situations involving drops hanging on fibers, in total wetting. Such drops can be found during the industrial process of glass wool manufacturing, as liquid glue is projected onto glass fibers in order to bind them and form the thermal insulator.In the first part, we study the spontaneous evolution of a liquid junction between two wires : a wetting drop makes the wires align and approach, and we characterize the dynamics and magnitude of these capillary interactions.Besides, a drop placed in the wedge between two fibers spreads in the corner, whereas an excess of liquid placed at the intersection spreads in the opposite direction until it reaches a spacing close to the fiber radius. We calculate this critical distance and observe it inside glass wool, revealing the possible spreading of industrial binder before it dries. The influence of elasticity is discussed.In the second part, we propose two ways to induce drop displacement. First of all, an electrostatic field between a conductive fiber and a counter electrode leads to the irreversible spreading of an insulating drop when the electricoverpressure exceeds the capillary overpressure. We model the dynamics of this dielectrophoretic spreading asa Marangoni effect. Secondly, a transversal air flow can induce the continuous motion of the drop in a random direction if the Reynolds number exceeds a critical value, at which point the wake becomes asymmetric. We model the dynamics of this translation as a viscous entrainment of the drop by the main vortex of the wake.The interactions between vortices are responsible for long-range repulsion between drops, their rebonds over solid obstacles and their capture by a downstream obstacle.
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Pierre-Brice Bintein. Dynamiques de gouttes funambules : applications à la fabrication de laine de verre. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA066091⟩. ⟨tel-01181342⟩

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