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Effet Hall quantique fractionnaire dans la bicouche et le puits large

Abstract : Due to technological advances in the manufacture of semiconductors enable, in it possible since the early 80s to create devices in which electrons are strongly confined in a plane, thus effectively realizing a two-dimensional electron system. The application of a strong perpendicular magnetic field to this system led to the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE) in 1980 and fractional QHE in 1982. Under a strong magnetic field the energy spectrum of the two-dimensional electrons is quantified in Landau levels that are macroscopically degenerate, and the behavior of the system is governed by the filling factor of Landau levels. The integer QHE appears around magnetic field values ​​which correspond to an integer filling of the Landau levels, while the fractional equivalent is obtained around certain fractions of the filling factor ν (ν = 1/3, 2/5, 5 / 2, ...). Although for integers values of ν is the individual behavior of electrons dictates the behavior of the system, the fractional filling factors the electronic correlations dominate. Because of those strong correlations, the underlying fractional QHE motivates an important experimental and theoretical research effort since its discovery. Indeed, in the fractional regime the strong correlations induce novel properties such as the existence fractionally-charged quasiparticles, but they also make the theoretical description of the system laborious. In 1983 Robert Laughlin proposed a variational wave function model for the description of the QHE observed at fractional filling ν = 1/3. He discussed the validity of this trial wave function in a comprehensive numerical study of interactions between electrons. The success of this method made it a paradigm, and many test wave functions have been proposed since then for the explanation of quantum Hall effects observed with other fillings factors. In particular, the wave function of Moore and Read is relevant for the description of the QHE observed at half-filling the second Landau level. This suggests the existence of non-Abelian quasiparticles with potential applications in topologically-protected quantum computing. QHE has also been observed at half filling the lowest Landau level, but the nature of the underlying quantum state is still debated; it is observed that in bilayer systems and wells wide. The large wells, which are the focus of this thesis, refer to systems in which the thickness of the two-dimensional electron system cannot be trivially neglected and usually corresponds to a thickness of about 100 nm. Due to the confinement potential felt by the electrons, their energy levels in the direction of confinement are quantized in sub-bands. In a narrow well only the lowest subband is populated and the corresponding degree of freedom is thus frozen, but in a wide well the excited sub-bands are relevant. Under these conditions fractional QHE at half-filling can also result from the stabilization of a two-state components that also populates the excited sub-band. The corresponding trial state, proposed by Bertrand Halperin in 1983, competes with the state of Moore and Read. In addition to these two states, a metal composite fermion state is a relevant trial state as well as an electronic Wigner crystal, the latter behaving as an insulator. The competition between these states is refered by a variational Monte-Carlo study combined with exact diagonalization calculations. The nature of the state that is stabilized depends on the nature of the confinement potential. In this PhD thesis three confinement potentials are studied: the bilayer, the wide well, and the wide well in the presence of an external bias.
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Nicolas Thiébaut. Effet Hall quantique fractionnaire dans la bicouche et le puits large. Systèmes mésoscopiques et effet Hall quantique [cond-mat.mes-hall]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA112050⟩. ⟨tel-01180047⟩

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