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Comment encourager les comportements prosociaux ou citoyens au travail : le rôle des inducteurs organisationnels et individuels

Abstract : Since the 1980s, the researchers investigating the behavior of individuals in the workplace have been increasingly facing the most spontaneous and voluntary behaviors which result in the improvement of organizational functioning. Known by several vocables such as organizational citizenship behaviors (Organ, 1988 ; Paille, 2006), organizational prosocial behaviors (Brief & Motowidlo, 1986 ; Desrumaux, Léoni, Bernaud & Defrancq, 2012…), these actions have been originally defined as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and that, overall, promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization" (Organ, 1988, p. 4). However, empirical studies offer different categorizations. The first is based on groups of behaviors (Organ, 1988 ; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990) and the second on a division in two dimensions as they are moving towards a particular target (organization vs. individual), each containing subcategories (Williams & Anderson, 1991). Based on these categorizations and relying on the theory of social exchange, this thesis will examine the role of either organizational or individual variables both in the prosociality of individuals in the workplace. In fact, it is to analyze the influence of work-related characteristics (organizational justice and organizational support), job satisfaction, organizational commitment, personality, emotions and empathy on CPST. A full model that includes all these variables has therefore been proposed. This model suggests that organizational and individual inducers affect CPST by mediation of job satisfaction, affects and empathy. Analytical results of studies conducted for this purpose reinforce some relational hypothesis and tend to reproduce a two-dimensional categorization. Thus, the present study shows that the prosociality of employees is positively related to several criteria such as perceived organizational support, distributive, procedural, interpersonal justices and organizational commitment. The results also support the mediator roles of empathy and affects in the relationship between distributive and procedural justices, affective involvement and prosocial behaviors. In terms of contributions, this study gives rise to the establishment of a strong theorical basis to organizational prosociality of workers. Then, this research overcomes some limitations of the previous studies inherent to the study of a small number of prosociality dimensions and antecedent variables. Finally, this research provides more information about the history and role of prosocial behaviors at work.
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Méthode Claudien Boundenghan. Comment encourager les comportements prosociaux ou citoyens au travail : le rôle des inducteurs organisationnels et individuels. Psychologie. Université Charles de Gaulle - Lille III, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015LIL30013⟩. ⟨tel-01179917⟩

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