Measurement of the cosmic lepton and electron fluxes with the AMS detector on board of the International Space Station. Monitoring of the energy measurement in the calorimeter

Abstract : The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle detector installed on the International Space Station; it starts to record data since May 2011. The experiment aims to identify the nature of charged cosmic rays and photons and measure their fluxes in the energy range of GeV to TeV. These measurements enable us to refine the cosmic ray propagation models, to perform indirect research of dark matter and to search for primordial antimatter (anti-helium). In this context, the data of the first years have been utilized to measure the electron flux and lepton flux (electron + positron) in the energy range of 0.5 GeV to 700 GeV. Identification of electrons requires an electrons / protons separation power of the order of 104, which is acquired by combining the information from different sub-detectors of AMS, in particular the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), the tracker and the transition radiation detector (TRD). In this analysis, the numbers of electrons and leptons are estimated by fitting the distribution of the ECAL estimator and are verified using the TRD estimator: 11 million leptons are selected and analyzed. The systematic uncertainties are determined by changing the selection cuts and the fit procedure. The geometric acceptance of the detector and the selection efficiency are estimated thanks to simulated data. The differences observed on the control samples from data allow to correct the simulation. The systematic uncertainty associated to this correction is estimated by varying the control samples. In total, at 100 GeV (resp. 700 GeV), the statistic uncertainty of the lepton flux is 2% (30%) and the systematic uncertainty is 3% (40%). As the flux generally follows a power law as a function of energy, it is important to control the energy calibration. We have controlled in-situ the measurement of energy in the ECAL by comparing the electrons from flight data and from test beams, using in particular the E/p variable where p is momentum measured by the tracker. A second method of absolute calibration at low energy, independent from the tracker, is developed based on the geomagnetic cutoff effect. Two models of geomagnetic cutoff prediction, the Störmer approximation and the IGRF model, have been tested and compared. These two methods allow to control the energy calibration to a precision of 2% and to verify the stability of the ECAL performance with time.
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Li Tao. Measurement of the cosmic lepton and electron fluxes with the AMS detector on board of the International Space Station. Monitoring of the energy measurement in the calorimeter. Other [cond-mat.other]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAY016⟩. ⟨tel-01178917⟩

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