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Nouveaux matériaux pour les supercondensateurs : développement et caractérisation

Abstract : This work deals with the study of electrode materials for supercapacitors. These storage devices have a significant power density of several kW/kg. Asymmetric systems have been developed in order to increase the energy density of these components while trying to maintain a high power density. They consist of a classic capacitive electrode made of activated carbon and a faradaic electrode. Two approaches have been broached regarding that non-blocking electrode: • Mainly, the use of lithium titanate Li4Ti5O12 which is a lithium insertion material usually used in Li-ion battery electrodes. It appeared that for hybrid systems including a negative electrode only made of Li4Ti5O12, the energy density is greatly reduced beyond 1 kW/kg. The use of composite negative electrodes made of activated carbon and Li4Ti5O12 is recommended so as to maintain good performances both in energy and power. Thus, for a power density of 2 kW/kg, the energy density of the developed hybrid system remains 1.5 superior to the one of an activated carbon / activated carbon symmetric system tested in the same conditions. • Secondly, the use of manganese dioxide MnO2, a pseudo-capacitive material involving redox reactions. The study has been focused on the synthesis of the metal oxide and then on the synthesis of a composite material by self-assembly. The aim is to aggregate small manganese dioxide particles around a carbon backbone. Such a microstructure offers a high specific surface area of active material directly in contact with a network having a good electronic conductivity. The obtained MnO2 + VGCF composite material has been tested as positive electrode in an asymmetric system, facing an activated carbon electrode. Thus, the stability window of the aqueous electrolyte has been multiplied by 1.5 compared to an activated carbon / activated carbon system. Finally, diamond has been considered as a supercapacitor electrode material in an explorative view since it offers a wide electrochemical stability window in water (around 3 V). The interest for tridimensional structures has been evidenced, e.g. a “needles” architecture allows to obtain a surfacic capacity ten times higher than the one obtained with a flat architecture.
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Aurore Dabonot. Nouveaux matériaux pour les supercondensateurs : développement et caractérisation. Matériaux. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENI092⟩. ⟨tel-01176864⟩

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