Cartographie hybride métrique topologique et sémantique pour la navigation dans de grands environnements

Romain Drouilly 1
1 Lagadic - Visual servoing in robotics, computer vision, and augmented reality
CRISAM - Inria Sophia Antipolis - Méditerranée , Inria Rennes – Bretagne Atlantique , IRISA-D5 - SIGNAUX ET IMAGES NUMÉRIQUES, ROBOTIQUE
Abstract : Utonomous navigation is one of the most challenging tasks for mobile robots. It requires the ability to localize itself or a target and to find the best path linking both positions avoiding obstacles. Towards this goal, robots build a map of the environment that models its geometry or topology. However building such a map in large scale environments is challenging due to the large amount of data to manage and localization could become intractable. Additionally, an ever changing environment leads to fast obsolescence of the map that becomes useless. As shown in this thesis, introducing semantics in those maps dramatically improves navigation performances of robots in realistic environments. Scene parsing allows to build extremely compact semantic models of the scene that are used for fast relocalization using a graph-matching approach. They are powerful tools to understand scene and they are used to extend the map beyond perceptual limits of the robot through reasoning. Statistical analysis of those models is used to build an embryo of common sens which allows to detect labeling errors and to update the map using algorithms designed to maintain a stable model of the world despite occlusions due to dynamic objects. Finally semantics is used to select the best route to a target position according to high level criteria instead of metrical constraints, allowing intelligent navigation.
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Romain Drouilly. Cartographie hybride métrique topologique et sémantique pour la navigation dans de grands environnements. Autre. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015NICE4037⟩. ⟨tel-01176848⟩

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