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Masse des cristaux de glace et facteurs de réflectivité radar dans les systèmes de nuages convectifs de moyenne échelle formés dans les Tropiques et la région de la mer Méditerranée

Abstract : This study focuses on the variability of mass-diameter relationships (m(D)) and shape of ice hydrometeors in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS). It bases on data base which were recorded during four airborne measurement campaigns: (i) African monsoon’s MCS (continent; MT2010), (ii) Indian Ocean’s MCS (MT2011), (iii) Mediterranean’s MCS (costs; HyMeX), (iv) North-Australian monsoon’s MCS (costs; HAIC-HIWC). m(D) of ice hydrometeors are derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2D-array probes and associated reflectivity factors measured with a Doppler cloud radar on the same research aircraft. Usually, m(D) is formulated as a power law (with one pre-factor and one exponent) that need to be constrained from complementary information on hydrometeors. A theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3D and arbitrarily projected on a 2D plan allowed to constrain the exponent β of the m(D) relationship from the exponent σ of the surface-diameter S(D) relationship, which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent can be calculated. After that, the pre-factor α of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivity factor matching the measured reflectivity factor along the aircraft trajectory. Mean profiles of m(D) coefficients, particles size distributions and Condensed Water Content (CWC) are calculated in functions of the temperature, and are different for each type of MCS. For the four types of MCS, it is shown that the variability of m(D) coefficients is correlated with the variability of the temperature. Four types of m(D) parametrisations are calculated since the analysis of the variability of the m(D) coefficients. The significant benefit of using variable m(D) relations instead of a single m(D) relationship is demonstrated from the impact of all these m(D) relations on Z-CWC and Z-CWC-T fitted parametrisations.
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Emmanuel Fontaine. Masse des cristaux de glace et facteurs de réflectivité radar dans les systèmes de nuages convectifs de moyenne échelle formés dans les Tropiques et la région de la mer Méditerranée. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22527⟩. ⟨tel-01176222⟩

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