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Quantum Hall effect in graphene for resistance metrology : Disorder and quantization

Abstract : The quantum Hall effect (QHE) observed in two dimensional electron gas placed at low temperature and under a strong perpendicular magnetic field, has revolutionized the resistance metrology since its discovery in 1980 by Klaus von Klitzing. It provides a representation of the ohm based on the Planck constant and the electron charge only. In 2004, graphene, a purely two dimensional arrangement of carbon atoms in an honeycomb lattice, where the charge carriers behave as Dirac fermions, has revealed a new flavor of the QHE. From the metrological point of view the QHE in graphene is very promising since it is much more robust than the effect appearing in conventional semiconductors and it could lead to a more convenient resistance standard operating at higher temperature and lower magnetic induction which is an advantage for a broader dissemination of a precise standard towards industrial end-users. In this manuscript, a complete study about the impact in the QHE regime of line defects such as wrinkles or grain boundaries, ubiquitous in graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on metal is treated. We show that these line defects lead to a non conventional dissipation mechanism that jeopardize the quantum Hall effect accuracy pointing to the use of wrinkle-free monocrystals for further metrological studies. The second part of my manuscript is focused on monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on silicon carbide. We precisely compared the Hall resistance of the graphene sample from 10 T to 19 T at the temperature of 1.4 K with a GaAs/AlGaAs resistance standard with a relative uncertainty of ( -2 ± 4 ) × 10⁻¹⁰. For the first time a graphene-based standard was able to operate in the same temperature and magnetic field conditions as semiconductor-based one, furthermore, on a magnetic range more than ten times larger. We thus made a careful study of the dissipation mechanisms taking place in this sample and measured precisely the magnitude of the localization length in the QHE regime that saturate interestingly at the extension of the charge carrier wavefunction itself, opening interesting questions about the close link between Hall quantization and localization physics in graphene grown on SiC. Finally in a second sample grown using the same technique we precisely compared the Hall resistance of the graphene sample and a GaAs/AlGaAs resistance standard that turned out to be in agreement at the metrological level for magnetic fields as low as 3.5 T current as high as 500 µA and temperature as high 9 K. This paves the way for the realization of easy to use quantum Hall resistance standards made out of graphene.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, July 15, 2015 - 9:22:06 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01176183, version 1

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Fabien Lafont. Quantum Hall effect in graphene for resistance metrology : Disorder and quantization. Other [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015PA112051⟩. ⟨tel-01176183⟩

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