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Dynamique de chaînes de polymère greffés et glissement aux interfaces

Abstract : In many cases, the development of surfaces with specific adhesive properties involves the use of "decorated interfaces." These interfaces consist of a solid substrate on which polymer chains are more or less well anchored. These chains are mechanically coupled to the surrounding material and control the transmission of friction and adhesion stresses at the interfaces. This coupling depends particularly on the penetration of the surface chains within the matrix and on their own dynamics. In this thesis, the systems we investigated are composed of a layer of polymer chains whose end is covalently linked to a solid substrate. These, so called, polymer brushes, provide a model system for decorated interfaces. Our objective was to study the conformation and dynamics of these grafted chains when they are subjected to different types of stress in order to understand the molecular mechanisms governing the adhesion and friction properties of this type of interface.In the first part, we investigated the healing kinetics of an interface composed initially of grafted chains collapsed on a substrate and in contact with a molten by using neutron reflectivity. When the system is brought above the glass transition temperature, the polymer chains mobility is high enough to allow the penetration of the grafted chains within the polymer melt. Neutrons reflectivity allowed us to probe at the molecular scale and to quantify the healing kinetics of this type of interface. The influence of molecular parameters on this healing kinetics was observed, which allowed us to propose a scaling law model to give a physical interpretation to the phenomenon studied.The second part of this thesis consisted in the development of an experimental setup which is able to shear a brush / melt interface above the glass transition temperature and to freeze the conformation of chains grafted in their sheared conformation. The inversion of the associated neutron reflectivity spectra made it possible to demonstrate the influence of shear on the degree of interpenetration between the brush and the melt which governs the transmission of stresses. In addition, we measured the kinetics of relaxation of grafted chains previously sheared and we compared it to the interdigitation experiments. This comparison highlighted the influence of the kind of solicitation on the relaxation kinetics of a brush/melt interface.We also observed that the relaxation kinetics and the conformation of the grafted chains may be altered when they are confined in a film which thickness is comparable to the radius of gyration of the chains. A systematic study using neutron reflectivity was conducted and highlighted an acceleration of the relaxation kinetics of the system below a critical thickness which could be interpreted in terms of a shift in the glass transition temperature.Secondly, we studied the slip of polymer solutions onto a grafted surface. The volume fraction of free chains in solution is an additional parameter which controls the degree of interpenetration between free chains and grafted chains. A first theoretical approach showed that different slip regimes can occur as a function of volume fraction. We have undertaken a first series of experiments using laser velocimetry after photobleaching to measure the surface velocity of flowing polymer solutions and to compare the experimental results to our theoretical approach.
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Alexis Chennevière. Dynamique de chaînes de polymère greffés et glissement aux interfaces. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA112404⟩. ⟨tel-01174918⟩

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