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Theses

Cohérence à un et deux électrons en optique quantique électronique

Abstract : This thesis deals with coherent quantum transport and aims at developing a formalism well suited to model experiments conducted in edge channels of integer quantum Hall effect. This formalism relies on analogies between these experiments and photon quantum optics ones.The manuscript begins with an introduction to the context of the thesis and an overview of issues, tools and successes of electron quantum optics.The first part of the work addresses the question of single electron coherence properties and introduces the key notion of excess of single electron coherence. Several representations are proposed and analyzed, giving access to physical informations encoded in the coherence function. The quantum states emitted by experimentally demonstrated electron sources are then analyzed under this perspective.Two electron effects are at the heart of the second part. The excess of two-electron coherence is defined taking into account both classical correction and quantum exchange effects. A detailed analysis of consequences of fermionic anti-symmetry is provided and shows that information encoded into two-electron coherence is redundant. Last, a normalized degree of coherence is introduced in view of a more direct study of indistinguishability and anti-bunching.The issue of measuring and manipulating electronic coherence by interferometry is addressed in the third part. First the relation between electronic coherence functions and directly measurable quantities in experiments is established, justifying the need for more involved measurement protocols. The measure of the excess of single electron coherence is envisioned through single electron Mach-Zehnder interferometry and two-electron Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry, suggesting a simpler interpretation of a tomography protocol established in 2011. A protocol for measuring the excess of two-electron coherence is then proposed by Franson-like interferometry, which generalizes the ideas used for measuring single electron coherence with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Last, a complementary point of view on Franson interferometer is given, by using it to generate a non-local two-electron coherence.
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Étienne Thibierge. Cohérence à un et deux électrons en optique quantique électronique. Physique Quantique [quant-ph]. Ecole normale supérieure de lyon - ENS LYON, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENSL0998⟩. ⟨tel-01171749⟩

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