Etude de l'intégration du collage direct cuivre/oxyde pour l'élaboration d'une architecture 3D-SIC

Abstract : The context of this work is the three-dimensional integration of electronic devices. Among the various techniques allowing to assemble both mechanically and electrically stacked chips, the direct bonding of Cu-SiO2 mixed surfaces is the most promising option to date. Thanks to this method, the interconnection density of 106/cm² aimed by the industry is achievable, while providing a low contact resistivity and excellent reliability. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the compatibility of the direct hybrid bonding Cu-SiO2 process with integrations and architectures that mimic real circuits. For this purpose, test vehicles incorporating two-layer and four-layer copper test structures have been specifically designed. Furthermore, finite element simulations of the direct bonding process have been developed within the Abaqus software. First, the 200 and 300 mm chip-to-wafer direct bonding process is validated. Morphological and electrical characterizations show that this stacking method does not deteriorate the integrity and performances of two-layer test structures with respect to a wafer-to-wafer integration. Furthermore, thermal cycling tests confirm the excellent mechanical strength of the bonded dies. The second part of this work focuses on morphological, electrical and reliability characterizations of four-layer test structures. In this case, the 200 mm wafer-to-wafer architecture of the test vehicles is close to an industrial integration. The various observations conducted with scanning and transmission electron microscopy indicate an excellent bonding quality of Cu/Cu and SiO2/SiO2 interfaces. Furthermore, the formation mechanisms of cavities at the Cu/Cu interface and the copper diffusion phenomenon in the silica are investigated. Electrical characterizations show functional yields above 95 % and standard deviations below 3 % after annealing at 200 or 400 °C. Finally, reliability studies including unbiased HAST, thermal cycling, temperature storage and électromigration test prove the resistance to corrosion and the mechanical robustness of this integration. Finally, the finite element simulations indicate that the cohesive interactions at the bonding interface, combined with the thermal expansion of the copper during the annealing, significantly assist the bonding process of copper surfaces with a dishing effect. In addition, the macroscopic plastic deformation of the copper appears to have a detrimental effect on the sealing of the interface by slowing the propagation of the bonding wave.
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Yann Beilliard. Etude de l'intégration du collage direct cuivre/oxyde pour l'élaboration d'une architecture 3D-SIC. Matériaux. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAI008⟩. ⟨tel-01170533⟩

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