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Contribution à la prévision de l'érosion de cavitation à partir de simulations numériques : proposition d'un modèle à deux échelles pour l'estimation du chargement imposé en paroi par le fluide

Abstract : During the life's cycle of a hydraulic installation, the occurrence of cavitation can cause significant damages on the material's surface. The quantification of the cavitation intensity in different geometry can be useful to get better designs for new installations, but also to improve the operating and to optimize maintenance of existing equipments. The development of universal laws of similarity from experiments is difficult due to the large number of parameters governing cavitating flows. With the increase of computational performance, numerical simulations offer the opportunity to study this phenomenon in various geometries. The main difficulty of this approach is the scale's difference existing between the numerical simulations U-RANS used to calculate the cavitating flow and mechanisms of bubble's collapse held responsible for damages on the solid. The proposed method in this thesis is based on a textbf{post-treatment} of the textbf{U-RANS} simulations to characterize a distribution of bubbles and to simulate their behavior at lower spatial and temporal scales. Our first objective is to make explicit a system of equations corresponding to phenomena occurring locally in the two-phase flow. This work leads to the development of mixture variables taking into account the presence of non-condensable gases in the fluid. Assumptions are taken to make the system, after using the Reynolds averaging procedure, equivalent to those, using a homogeneous approach, implemented in the unsteady cavitating flows solvers previously developed in the laboratory. The characterization of bubbles made by this post-treatment takes into account both the surface tension and the presence of non-condensable gases. The development of a solver for the simulation of the dynamic of a bubble cloud is started. It aims to take into account both the interactions between bubbles and non-spherical deformations with a potential method. First results of these simulations are presented and small non-spherical deformations occurring during the collapse can be observed. Finally, we propose a chained method between these two systems initializing the bubble dynamic solver with results of U-RANS simulations. The energy emitted during the implosion of bubbles impacting the solid surface is calculated. So the aggressiveness of the flow on the material can be characterized. We apply this method on different flows to compare numerical and experimental results.
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Laurent Krumenacker. Contribution à la prévision de l'érosion de cavitation à partir de simulations numériques : proposition d'un modèle à deux échelles pour l'estimation du chargement imposé en paroi par le fluide. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015GREAI006⟩. ⟨tel-01170332⟩

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