Systèmes de détection multiparamétrique de marqueurs biologiques ou de polluants, appliqués au diagnostic et au contrôle environnemental

Cloé Desmet 1
1 GEMBAS - Génie Enzymatique, Membrane Biomimétique et Assemblages Supramoléculaires
ICBMS - Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moléculaires et Supramoléculaires
Abstract : The work reported in this thesis focuses on the development of new multiplex analytical devices on biochip or electrode microarray format, dedicated to diagnosis and environmental monitoring. The objective of the first research axis is diagnosis, thanks to the detection in patients’ serum of a panel of antibodies, biomarkers of a pathological state. For that purpose, two immunotests have been developed, enabling the multiparametric detection of specific antibodies by automated and high-throughput analysis of serum samples. This approach is based on the antibodies capture by antigens probes immobilized in a matrix of spots on a membrane surface composing the wells bottom of a micro-titer plate. Enzyme-labeled antibodies have been used, providing a colorimetric detection. This device enabled the achievement of the analysis of 96 samples in less than three hours and has been applied to different applications. The first one consists of allergy diagnosis, and the second focuses on cancer diagnosis. The second part of this work is applied to environmental monitoring, through water analysis. Different types of pollutants have been defined as targets: pesticides, toxins and explosives. In order to integrate them in a matrix of probes, different conjugates have been synthesized with these haptens. After screening and optimization of the conjugates through their reactivity and cross-reactivity with the specific antibodies, the developed device demonstrated his analytical performances in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. Finally, for the European Project BONAS, a last sensor based on water analysis has also been developed. This electrochemical microarray aims to detect explosives precursors, used in improvised explosive devices, for the localization of hidden bomb factory. The chip was designed as a screen-printed electrode network, which was modified by different metals electrodeposition
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Cloé Desmet. Systèmes de détection multiparamétrique de marqueurs biologiques ou de polluants, appliqués au diagnostic et au contrôle environnemental. Biochimie [q-bio.BM]. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LYO10149⟩. ⟨tel-01169930⟩

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