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Du type au prototype : outils et processus de conception du projet architectural élaborés par Henry Jacques Le Même (1897-1997)

Abstract : This thesis questions the design process developed by architect Henry Jacques Le Même (1897-1997). Our goal is to understand the know-how he implemented by project practice to realize various commands both by their programs and their scales, in multiple historical contexts. The objective is to intellectually deconstruct part of his work by the architectural analysis, and considering the studied projects in their production context to capture the design tools of the project that are specific to it. To conduct detailed analyzes we consider a small number of projects that have been designed at key times during Henry Jacques Le Même career, or at pivotal historical moments for the transformation of the profession of the architect. The first part of the research is to understand how the variation of the architectural style of the skier's cottage - that he invented in the late 1920s and on which he worked for nearly 60 years - allows Henry Jacques Le Même to create project tools to make his practice efficient and to provide adequate responses to his orders. The architectural analysis of a sample of 19 skier's cottage projects aims to identify the principles of architectural type and the reasons of their evolution. The architectural practice of Henry Jacques Le Même has been influenced by prefabrication, industrialization of construction, and the transformation of the architectural command. To understand this we analyze the first projects in which he must integrate these new modalities in the design exercise. Based on the study of half a dozen experimental projects – that the architect designed in the years 1940-1950 -, our goal is to understand the process he developed to think the idea of prototype, the transformation of construction process, and the architecture destined for the masses. The analysis of the design process of studied projects reveals a research conducted by Henry Jacques Le Même on the project practice to reduce its complexity for spatial organization. This research is issued from a renewal of his intellectual tools from his architectural culture, and results in a work on the composition, the definition of an architectural style or modular design. Moreover, the architect develops a methodology which is based on producing serial graphics sets that allow him to record his ideas and intentions in order to bring forward the project thinking. To carry out our research, we first rely on the study of documents from the archives of Henry Jacques Le Même, preserved in the Departmental Archives of Haute-Savoie. These primary sources reflect the thinking of the architect during the development of his projects and helped us to develop the content of our research by a cross-analysis of the written and graphic documentation. In addition we have undertaken a re-drawing of the original plans associated with graphical analyzes. This research method uses the tools of the architect and allow us to operate a process of deconstruction and reconstruction of the analyzed projects to make readable and intelligible their organization and spatial characteristics. The understanding of the analyzed architectures has been specified by a work of historical and theoretical documentation. The thesis was conducted in the laboratory les Métiers de l'Histoire de l'Architecture, édifices-villes-territoires, ENSA Grenoble, and within a CIFRE agreement with the CAUE Haute-Savoie.
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Mélanie Manin. Du type au prototype : outils et processus de conception du projet architectural élaborés par Henry Jacques Le Même (1897-1997). Architectures Matérielles [cs.AR]. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENH015⟩. ⟨tel-01169385⟩

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