Essai sur les clauses contractuelles

Abstract : Contractual clauses are key elements of a contract and should be studied more closely in order to facilitate their use by practioners and to enhance understanding by the judge.This work does not claim to be exhaustive. Its purpose is not to to identify, enumerate or catalogue the numerous clauses that abound in all branches of private law. Such a project would only yield a fragmented, descriptive insight. A general reflection on clauses as legal instruments does not necessitate a detailed examination of all applications but only that their most notable effects be highlighted.Firstly, a typology of the most important clauses had to be drawn up based on a functional approach regarding their contractual applications. The parties to a contract generally have in view four main goals: organising the execution of the contract, managing the risks, avoiding legal pitfalls, and foreseeing the end of the contract and any potential sanctions. The establishment of a classification based on function ensured that clauses arising from economic necessity as well as clauses considered to be independent would not beneglected. Hence, this project comprises research on the details of implementation of clauses in the same category, leading to the setting out of a legal regime appropriate to each category. Secondly, the aim of analysing the clauses’ functions led to studying the links between clauses and contracts. Clauses basically serve to organise the terms of the contract, extend its effects and establish sanctions. However, in parallel to the two levels – the general theory of contracts and special contracts law – it had to be demonstrated that a general theory of contractual clauses did not constitute a third level of rules applicable to contracts. Nevertheless, an overall view of the influence of their effects, both in terms of and beyond the contract, has allowed for the establishment of a general regime presenting the conditions of validity and common rules applicable to all clauses.
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Nicolas Gras. Essai sur les clauses contractuelles. Droit. Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF10458⟩. ⟨tel-01168586⟩



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