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Etude expérimentale de la dynamique sédimentaire des rivières en tresses

Abstract : Complex mechanisms involved in braided rivers morphology and the interaction with the grain sorting are slightly studied. Throughout this thesis, we study the morphological signature of a system at equilibrium, and the interaction between the bed morphology and grain sorting. From our small-scale experiments, we studied the prediction of sediment transport. We studied three different small-scale streams, a alternate bars model with heterogeneous sediment (duration 100h), a braided stream model using uniform sand (duration 385h) and a braided stream model using sand and coarse sand mixture (duration 435h). Upstream conditions have been changed several times for each braided stream. It appears that the only one relevant index to compare sediments stages of different streams is the surface above the average slope. To study a single site's evolution, the traditional parameters such as slope or Bed Relief Index (BRI) are relevant enough. We observed different effects of grain sorting. First, grain sorting is responsible of selective depositions and led to active channel migration. The selective deposition leads to bar emergence. Sedimentary lobes that we observed on uniform sand model were rarely noticed on the sand and coarse sand mixture experiment. This results suggests that sediments motion is tiny linked to grain size range. Modeling of sediment transport in such varied morphology faces different problems. Plenty of confluences and fronts bars changes sediment transport and local conditions connections. The influence of morphology is predominant in the dynamic of sediment transport.
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Pauline Leduc. Etude expérimentale de la dynamique sédimentaire des rivières en tresses. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013GRENU039⟩. ⟨tel-01167872⟩

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