L'évolution des villes dans l'espace post-soviétique. Observation et modélisations.

Abstract : The Russian and Soviet urbanisation process happened late and fast, compared to other territories. Many new towns and cities were created by the Soviet regime that officially promoted discourses about the socialist function of the city, rational organisation of space and a planned management of the economy. These urban particularities and the multiple demographic and political events of the 20th century have made cities in the post-Soviet space an interesting case and raised question regarding its ruptures and comparability. This dissertation thesis aims to show that the concept of system of cities and generic methods in urban geography (especially models) are useful in the study of urban evolution over the long term in this space, to eventually better understand past trends and predict future ones. We confronted several statistical models with the observed urban dynamics and concluded that the macro-geographical structure of cities in the post-Soviet space was comparable to that of other systems of cities (hierarchy of sizes, spacing, functional differentiation). We also observed specific trajectories related to the size of the territory, natural resources, the recent demographic shrinkage and the effect of particular political decisions. This knowledge about observed evolutions has been included in an incremental approach of agent-based modeling. Starting from theoretical hypotheses about generative mechanisms, we tried to generate generic and specific stylised facts, with a model as parsimonious as possible. The progressive evaluation of increasingly complex models led to the satisfactory simulation of observed urban evolution and highlighted specific trajectories that « resist » modeling.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01167818
Contributor : Clementine Cottineau <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, June 24, 2015 - 5:36:01 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, July 17, 2019 - 2:36:50 AM
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Clémentine Cottineau. L'évolution des villes dans l'espace post-soviétique. Observation et modélisations.. Géographie. Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01167818⟩

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