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Caractérisation optique et microphysique des aérosols atmosphériques en zone urbaine ouest africaine : application aux calculs du forçage radiatif à Ouagadougou

Abstract : In this thesis, we analyze the main characteristics of atmospheric aerosols on an urban site in West Africa: Ouagadougou. This analysis is followed by an assessment of the radiative forcing produced by this population of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere, in the atmospheric layer and at the Earth's surface. A climatological study of the optical properties (optical thickness, Angstrom exponent, single scattering albedo, asymmetry factor) and microphysical properties (particle size distribution, complex refractive index) was performed on basis of data obtained from photometric measurement and inversions of AERONET network. The analysis of these data allowed us to define the different variabilities of the properties studied at various time scales. These properties have highlighted the combined effects of human activity, the cycle production of mineral dust from the Sahara region, the seasonal succession and the climate dynamics known in this region of the earth. The composition of the aerosol plume was also deduced from the analysis of optical data, and the conclusions were found to be in good agreement with chemical analysis carried out at LSCE on samples obtained by sampling on filters at Ouagadougou. The radiation balance was assessed using the GAME model. This simulation showed a strong relationship of the radiative forcing with the succesion of wet and dry seasons, with extreme values in August (wet) and Mars (dry with maximum dust emissions). The results showed a cooling at the surface that can reach -41 W / m 2 in March, a warming of the atmosphere, ranging from 15 to 35 W / m 2 about and a cooling at the top of the atmosphere between -2 and -6 W / m 2 . The representation of the radiative forcing calculated as a function of the single scattering albedo showed a linear trend with a correlation coefficient reflecting relatively good reliability of our results (about 88%). The consistency of simulated values was also shown by a comparison with the results obtained in the West African region by other researchers using different techniques. Similarly, the representation of the radiative efficiency simulated as a function of the inverted AERONET one showed a very good agreement.
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Bruno Korgo. Caractérisation optique et microphysique des aérosols atmosphériques en zone urbaine ouest africaine : application aux calculs du forçage radiatif à Ouagadougou. Sciences de la Terre. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II; Université de Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso), 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014CLF22509⟩. ⟨tel-01166332⟩

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