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Les fuites d'azote en grandes cultures céréalières : Lixiviation et émissions atmosphériques dans des systèmes biologiques et conventionnels du bassin de la Seine (France)

Abstract : In the past decades, intensive conventional farming (CF) has led to nitrogen (N) losses in the environment, due to nitrate (NO3-) leaching and to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. We assumed that organic farming (OF) could contribute in reducing these losses. Therefore, the main aim of this PhD study is to measure and quantify N losses in different spatial scales (process, farm, catchment) and different arable cops systems (OF/CF) in the Seine basin.At the farm scale, the OF rotation reduce by 28% N2O emissions and by 25% NO3 leached. At the processes scale, nitrification, denitrification and their N2O emissions associated, according to a range of temperatures (5-45°C) showed Gaussian curves. At the Orgeval basin scale, the N balance showed OF system (a preventive measure) would allow to reduce diffused N pollution without increasing N2O emissions, differently from the implementation of ponds (a curative measure).Finally, 18 arable crop systems (8 OF, 10 CF) have been equipped with ceramic cups in the Seine basin. At the rotation scale, the sub-root concentrations means were 10.1 ± 3.4 mg N l-1 for the OF systems (with alfalfa in the head of the rotation) and 16.6 ± 10.3 mg N l-1 for the CF systems. The sub-root concentrations converted in the N flow led to 15.3 ± 9.7 kg N ha-1 in OF and 27 ± 24.7 kg N ha-1 in CF, depending on farms in different soil and climate conditions.
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Marie Benoit. Les fuites d'azote en grandes cultures céréalières : Lixiviation et émissions atmosphériques dans des systèmes biologiques et conventionnels du bassin de la Seine (France). Sciences de la Terre. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PA066540⟩. ⟨tel-01165033⟩

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